Monday, March 11, 2019
Genetic Engineering Is the Key to a Better Future
In February 1997, Dolly, the commencement mammalian copy was born(p) in Edinburgh, Scotland (Wilson, 2003, p104). With this achievement, the public starts to give attention towards the admit of hereditary applied science and recombinant of desoxyribonucleic acid. Since that successful achievement onwards, mess, governments and organizations had been aro apply by the ancestral design issues. The consequences of this regard had been a public protest against the wont of such(prenominal) experimental procedures genic plan.The exploration of patrimonial technology is fairish the beginning and this field of study should non be protested beca aim it has a lot of advantages to improve the quality of tone for wholly. The discovery of desoxyribonucleic acid was the very beginning of catching plan. Before that, what is familial engineering? Genetic engineering is also cognise as ancestral modification which is the gentle manipulation of organisms genetic natural in a guidance that does non occur under natural conditions. It involves the use of recombinant DNA techniques, moreover does non include traditional sentient creation and plant breeding or mutagenesis.Besides that, it is also the use of mixed methods to manipulate the DNA (genetic material) of cells to change hereditary traits or originate biological products. The techniques include the use of hybridomas (hybrids of rapidly multiplying back in like mannerthcer cells and of cells that make a craved antibody) to make monoclonal antibodies gene splicing or recombinant DNA, in which the DNA of a desired gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterium, which then reproduces itself, submissive more of the desired gene and polymerase chain reaction, which makes perfect copies of DNA fragments and is use in DNA fingerprinting (Arora, 2007).This new technology of genetic engineering dates back to the 1950s. In 1951 three scientists, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and James Dewey Watson, were credited with the discovery of DNA (Wilson, 2003, p1 & p11). Later, they were endowed the Nobel estimate in physiology and medicine in 1962 (Lewin, 1984). DNA is also known as deoxyribonucleic acid and it carries a living organisms genetic code. The discovery of DNA was the very beginning of genetic engineering. Later they were presented the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine in 1962.In 1972 Paul Berg created the graduation recombinant DNA molecules by combined DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with that of the lambda virus. The first genetic engineering company, Genentech, was founded by Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson in 1976. Genetic engineering could be used to enhance peoples lives by its application to plants and animals used for food for thought (Wilson, 2003, p115). Genetic engineering should be allowed to progress because of the capability benefits for the tender species. For example, it pull up stakes be possible for cows to will be genetically engineered t o produce pharmaceuticals in their milk.This means that vaccination shots and pills would become obsolete. Babies could be brought up immune to maladys by simply being fed this milk. Imagine the shock on the quality of brio for people who live in third base piece countries like Somalia. Countries could be made healthy and immune to disease. Malnutrition, a common problem in many third humankind countries where free people rely on a single crop such as rice for the main staple of their diet (Whitman, 2000), could also peradventure be cured with genetic engineering.Rice does not provide all of the nutrients that the body call for in third world countries and other food is very scarce. If rice or bread, other major(ip) staple, is genetically engineered to arrest additional necessary vitamins and minerals then we could go a long mood towards wiping out malnutrition all over the world. In addition, farmers who breed plants and animals specifically can be engineered to produce more meat or fruit, faster and easier than normal, then food would become cheaper and more plentiful. Furthermore, better tasting and more alimentary foods, fruits and ve turn back suit equals with desired qualities can be produced.The bea that stands to benefit the most from genetic engineering is medicine. Organ transplants and cosmetic procedures, like silicone breast implants, that whitethorn cause disease would soon cease to exist. Instead of using materials external to the body for such procedures, doctors will be fitted to even up bone, fat, concurrence tissue, or cartilage that match the patients tissues exactly, thus ensuring that the needed tissue will be free of rejection by their immune system. Victims of terrible accidents who de jump the looking at and body would be able-bodied to have their features repaired with new and safer technology.Limbs for amputees would be regenerated and anyone would be able to have their appearance altered to their satisfaction with out the risk of leaking silicone gel into their bodies, or the other problems that occur with present day formative surgery. Because genetic engineering will insure acceptance by the body, those in desperate need of organ and other transplants will one-day have their prayers answered by cloning. Using ones own cells to grow whole organs will distinguish the need for organ donors and waiting lists. Skin, brain cells, hearts, lungs, livers, and kidneys could all be produced.Those who father from spinal injuries, like Christopher Reeve, might one day be able to get out of their wheelchairs and walk again. Genetic engineering also has the provide to cure infertility, which a painful reality that many couples doneout the world face. The current options for unfertilised couples be inefficient, painful, expensive, and heart breaking ( valet Cloning Foundation). many couples run out of time and money without successfully having children. According to the Human Cloning Foundation, le ss than 10 percent of the current infertility interferences are successful.Genetic engineering could make it possible for many more infertile couples to have children than ever before by boosting success rates through nuclear transfer of sperm from the father into the mothers egg, thus creating a picturesque unique child. The exploration of genetic engineering is just the beginning moreover most of the society is totally against this field of study. Most of them states that genetic engineering is not part of the natural order of things. The concept that society needs to understand is that with the justifiedly amount of time and money, genetic engineering will help to reduce diseases and save many lives.Many people do not realize that genetic engineering plays a vital fictional character in many lives throughout the world. Genetic engineering includes artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, sperm banks, cloning, and gene manipulation (Goetz, 1990). Synthetic insulin is now available for use to treat diabetes. This man made insulin has many positive aspects, which include its liveness span, the cost to manufacture it and the amount that is available. The synthetic insulin lasts for two to three times longer than its natural form and costs substantially less to manufacture than to extract it from an animal.One other benefit is the amount that can be manufactured. In animals, the scientists need to wait for it to mature to extract the insulin. The synthetic reference work is completely man made and any amount can be manufactured in large quantities. The replication of insulin is not the solely way biotechnology is being utilized. Today, people receive synthetic hormones that their body cannot produce such as growth hormones, thyroid, estrogen, and testosterone. Vaccines are also another form of genetic engineering that has been used for many years.Vaccines already protect against disease to a certain extent, but for a virus like HIV, it is too ri sky to inject person with a vaccine. The reason for this is because a vaccine is a solution that contains a dead or weakened virus that has been synthetically prepared. Further work on a HIV vaccine could save many lives and possibly eliminate the disease. With the technology genetic engineering, this biotechnology makes it possible for more people to live. Other than insulin, plants are also being genetically engineered. This type of genetic engineering is more commonly accepted, but why?It is no different for a plant to be able to fight off pests then it is for a human to be able to fight off diseases. This is a contradiction, because society is saying that it is all right for a plant to be genetically engineered but not a human. Besides part of the natural order of things, people do chief about the moral aspects. The moral question of genetic engineering is answered by looking at the advances in medicine. Today the advancements in medicine are evolving at high rate. If the scie nce of genetic engineering is wrong, then so are the rest of the advances in medicine.The reason is because genetic engineering is just another form of medical advancement. Gene manipulation is not breathing out to be used for any other purpose except for the treatment and elimination of disease. The one thing that people need to realize is the potential of genetic engineering. Try to visualize what parents of a child is dying from a disease like multiple sclerosis calculate about the benefits of genetic engineering. Do they think that it is chastely wrong or right? They think that it is right because it is going to save their childs life.Cloning is another form of genetic engineering that is not accepted as morally right. According to Gunter Kahl (2009), knockoff is a group of genetically identical cells or organisms originating from one single ancestral cell or organism. The term Clone originates from Greek word Klon, which means twig . For example, to clone a human heart, sci entist does not have to clone the whole person. They only need to clone the heart by itself. There would be no purpose in cloning a person, because it offers science little or no benefits.If somebody is cloned, it does not mean it will be the same person in every way. It only means that their genetic makeup will be exactly alike. The environment in which they grow up plays a major role in the development of the persons personality. Safety of genetic engineering is also something that presents as a concern. Today the Federal and order Governments set many limitations on bio proficient industries. The FDA and State Governments impose limits such as the illegalization of human cloning and limits on other genetic engineering processes.The only legal forms of genetic engineering that are used today are in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination, and sperm banks. Another form of genetic engineering is the use of gene therapy. Gene therapy is illegal because people should not be able to create the perfect child, but they should be able to worsen a gene in a child if it has a happening of being born with Down syndrome. The golosh precautions are the effect in order to save the lives of unborn babies. Gene therapy cannot be used on humans until it is better and when there is not even little or no chance of failure.These sciences are not perfect but vainglorious it a few years to improve it then it will be a great benefit to the human race. Cloning is also link up to the safety issue in genetic engineering. In terms cloning, it is not safe to clone a human. It took 277 trials to successfully clone Dolly the sheep. This should not stop scientists from trying to clone organs that could save many lives. soon three states banned the cloning of humans. Among the states are Michigan, Rhode Island, and California. The state banns will persist in effect for five years in California and Rhode Island.In the state of Michigan, if convicted of attempting or cloning a human there is a number of penalties, including a ten-year prison sentence. With this amount of time, the scientists will have perfected the process of cloning and it will be accepted more than it is now. The safety regulations of cloning only extend to human cloning at the present time. This is due to the fact that cloning is not perfect and some abnormalities and failures may have come about in this new technology. Society cannot need to be perfect the first time it does something, but merely get better as they practice.The more tests that are done on bacteria, plants, and organisms the more effective genetic engineering will benefit human life in the future. Scientists are also able to detect abnormalities in the cloned organism before it has even started to develop. By monitoring the DNA of the organism, scientists can find if the clone will be able to further develop. If it is not able to then the process can be terminated. With all the benefits mentioned earlier, genetic eng ineering does bring a lot of advantages for all. However, most people throughout the world still feel that the issue of genetic engineering is unethical (Wilson, 2003, p133). even so though genetic engineering is a new aspect of our technological research, it should, at all costs, be allowed to develop further. The possible benefits from genetic engineering are endless. Genetic engineering, then, is a tool that humans can use to cure many of their problems. The possibilities are endless if only we do not let ourselves be restricted by those who are afraid of the unknown. The people of the world should ease up on holding back the developing of science and realize its possibilities for future generations.