Wednesday, July 31, 2019
According to Kidwell and Warach (2003) cerebral vascular accident is a term that was usedÃ to referred to the loss brain functionsÃ arising from theÃ problems in the blood vessels that supply theÃ brain with oxygenated blood.CVA can be caused by the ischemia or lack of enough blood supply to the brain due to a thrombosis, embolism or due to complications from hemorrhage.The central nervous system is very critical to the body and therefore lack of blood supply is likely to affect the other parts of the body.Ã Mostly it leads to the inability to move limbs on one side of the body, distorted speech and understanding, or visual impairment.Ã Today, the term stroke it mostly used in reference to cardiovascular accident. The prevalence of the condition has shown that the aged population is at a higher risk compared to the rest of the population.A disease of the agedThere are more than 500,000 case of CVA in the United States recorded every year. This results to more than 1 50,300 deaths every year due to direct attack like stroke or due to other incapacitation and complications. More than thirty percent die in acute stage of the attack while about thirty to fourth percent are severely disabled.Statistics also reveal that more than 50 percent of individuals who suffer their first CVA or stroke attack are more than 70 years old while ninety five percent of the all the attacks occurs to individuals who are more than 45 years ofÃ age.Men, especially those above 65 years are 1.25 times more likely to suffer from CVA attack. However since women live longer than men, sixty percent of the case occurs in women since the risk increase with advancement in age. (Haase, 2006)Causes and contributing factorsCerebral vascular accident (CVA) is caused by an ischemic attack or hemorrhage complications which attack the brain tissues leading to infarction of brain tissue through interruption of the cerebral blood flow.Ã An ischemic attack may last for not more than five minutes but it has permanent effects since it damages the neural tissues which are incapable of regeneration.The pathophysiological progression of the condition shows that three groups of individuals are at a higher risk of suffering a CVA or stroke. The first group includes those with the transit neurological events. The second group includes those with the cardiac disease which increasingly predispose them to embolism and the third group comprise of those with asymptomatic carotid bruit which is a sign of vessel blockage.Ã Mohr et al., (2004) argues that transit ischemic attacks serves as a warning sign which indicate that a stroke attack can occur at any one time.This means that we can identify two prime causes as an embolism and a hemorrhagic attack. An embolism can be detached from the blood vessel wall, travel to the brain and block the vessel resulting to stroke. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by tissue injuries which result to compression of the tissues. This is mai nly from an expanding hematoma and can either distort or injure tissues. The two most important risk factors are high blood pressure and arterial fibrillation.High blood pressure or hypertension causes about thirty five to fifty percent of the all stroke cases. High blood pressure may lead to a detachment of embolism increasing the risk of blockage of CNS blood vessels. On the other hand, arterial fibrillation accounts for about five percent of all case of stroke.Other minor risk factors include high amount of cholesterol in the blood which increase the risk for embolism, diabetes mellitus which increases the risk for hypertension and hyperlidimia, Anticoagulation drugs like warfarin which increase the risk for bleeding, surgical procedures and nutrition factors. (Mohr et al., 2004)
The Camel: How it has Adapted Organisms exist in many environments, some are arid, some flooded, some are basic, some acidic, some are hot, and some are cool. Regardless of the conditions, animals have adapted themselves to survive in their surroundings. One of the main ecosystems that is classed as an extreme environment is the desert ecosystem. A classic example of a desert is the Sahara. Aridity is a characteristic shared amongst all deserts. As reported by Smith (2013), the reason most deserts are arid is because of uneven levels of evapotranspiration and precipitation.Aswel as adapting to very dry conditions, organisms in a desert ecosystem have also adapted to hot temperatures. The temperatures range from as high as 40oC during the day to as low as below freezing during the night due to lack of cloud cover. Evolution: As wrote by Long & Savage (1986) in the late Eocene period and to the end of Miocene, camels evolved and diversified solely in North America. During this time the y were similar in size to rabbits, and their feet contained four toes. In Oligocene times, camels were similar in size to goats, with the lost of the lateral toes, with the remaining digits showing signs of evolution.During the Miocene time, camels adapted a new of walking, it is know as pacing gait. This is where the camel moved both left or both right legs in one movement, instead of opposite legs. During this time camels feet produced pad like structures, which helped them from sinking in soft terrain i. e sand. Then they arrived in South America during the Plio-Pleistocene times. This is where they diversified into 2 more genus under Camelinae family of the more known species, llama and alpaca, and 2 less known, guanaco and vicuna.As this happened, they crossed into the Ã¢â¬ËOld World', where they then spread across Europe, Asia and Africa, this is where they branched out into the Ã¢â¬Ësingle humped' Camelus Dromedarius, and Ã¢â¬Ëdouble humped' Camelus Bactrianus. Characte ristics of Camelus Dromedarius: An animal that has adapted well to this environment is the Camelus Dromedarius. Wilson (1984) as cited by Kohler-Rollefson (1991) describes the features of the camels body. Dromedary camels have a shoulder height of at least 1. 8m, with the hump extending a further 20cm. They can weights upwards of 400kg.Dromedary camels have a long upward curved neck, with a single hump on it's back. This is all supported by their long, strong legs and wide webbed feet. Body Temperature / Water Conservation: In the desert temperatures fluctuate. On average, a dehydrated camels body temperature fluctuates by up to 8oC in a single day, it can increase from an average of 34-36 to 42oC. There is less of a fluctuation if the camel is hydrated (2oC). If camels did not tolerate this fluctuation in temperature and instead tried to keep the body cool, up to 5 litres of water could be lost due to sweating.This allows the camel to conserve water and energy. The camel then takes advantage of the cool evenings to dissipate heat, with no energy cost. Camels, like all other mammals do sweat to maintain an acceptable temperature, however, it is not continuous. (Mares, 1999). Composition of Camel's Hump: Mares (1999), reports that a common misconception associated with camels is that their hump is composed of water, this has been disproven, and instead replaced with the fact this it is fat. Another common misconception associated with a camels hump is that water is produced by the oxidation of fat.This is has been proven to be false, or at least, partially untrue as the oxidation of fat requires an increased oxygen intake, this results in an increased rate of breathing, which increases the amount of water lost as vapour from the lungs. This nullifies the effect of the metabolized fat, yielding no net gain in water. As previously discussed, camels have adapted to keep their bodies cool, without sacrificing water. Another adaptation that is seen with camels is th at their main fat store is their hump. A camel does not store fat on other parts of their body.This is because the fat would act as insulation and reduce the amount of heat lost at night, at a time when the temperature is cooler, and most heat dissipation occurs. Excretion in Camels: Richards (1973) as cited by Mukasa-Mugerwa (1981) explores the fact that camels are able to produce urine that contains twice as much salt as sea water. It was noted by Mukasa-Mugerwa (1981) that the Kidney is composed of Henle loops of varying lengths. Camels are seen to contain a lot of longer loops than any other species, so there is a bigger potential for water to be reabsorbed, and the urine becoming concentrated.This coincides with the camels ability to facilitate water and plants with a salt content higher than normal. Schmidt-Nielsen (1964) as cited by Mukasa-Mugerwa (1981) compared the volume of urine excreted by the camel while hydrated and while dehydrated. The camel while hydrated, excreted up to 4 litres of urine in a single day, compared to the when it was dehydrated, where it excreted up to half a litre of urine. It was also noted that the camel produced faeces, almost completely absent of water.It was composed of a large number of pellets approximately 3cm in length. As they lacked water, they were light to lift, with a shiny appearance. Conclusion: Camels like animals in other extreme environments have adapted well to suit their environment of temperature fluctuations and a lack of water. Camels have evolved in such a way that moving has been made easier, they do not sink into the sand, so they do not expend more energy than is needed. The camels adaptation to a large fluctuation in body temperature allows water to be conserved as it is not lost as sweat.The camels hump proves as an invaluable energy source when food sources are scarce, as is common in desert ecosystems, the fat is metabolized and used as energy. It's all these adaptations that allows the camel to live in such an extreme environment. The absence of one or more of these adaptations would lead to the inability of camels to survive in this environment. In this day and age global warming is increasing the average temperature of the earths atmosphere, if there was a significant increase, could these organism handle an increased temperature luctuation? References: Jeremy M. B. Smith desert 2013. Encyclop? dia Britannica Online. Retrieved 01 March, 2013, from http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/158992/desert Kohler-Rollefson, Ilse U, (1991). Camelus Dromedarius. Mammalian Species. 375 (1-8), pp. 1-4 Mares, Michael A. , (1999). Encyclopaedia of Deserts. 1st ed. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Richards, S. A. , 1973. Adaptation to heat. In Temperature regulation. London, Wykeham Publications, pp. 191-197 as cited by Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. , (1981).The Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review. 1st ed. Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre of Africa Savage R . J. G & Long, M. R. , (1986). Mammal Evolution. 1st ed. United Kingdom: Facts on File & The British Museum. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1964. The Camel. In Desert Animals: physiological problems of heat and water. Oxford, Clarendon press, 277 pp as cited by Mukasa-Mugerwa, E. , (1981). The Camel (Camelus Dromedarius): A Bibliographical Review. 1st ed. Ethiopia: International Livestock Centre of Africa
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Answer. To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. Henry mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. The informational roles link all managerial work together. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The decisional roles make significant use of the information. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole. The idea of a role comes from sociology and is the pattern of actions expected of a person in his activities involving others. It arises as a result of the position that he occupies in a group in a given situation. Thus, a manager who occupies different positions in different situations plays different roles because people in each situation have different expectations of him concerning his functions. Interpersonal Roles: The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. In the figurehead role, the manager represents the organization in all matters of formality. The top-level manager represents the company legally and socially to those outside of the organization. The Informational Role: The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a unique position to get information. Thus, the three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work. The Decisional Role: The unique access to information places the manager at the centre of organizational decision-making. There are four decisional roles. In the entrepreneur role, the manager initiates change. Q. 4 What are the factors influencing perception? Ã¢â¬ question. The assignment question is written for SMU MBA MB0038 assignment. We already have shared some solved assignments for MB0038 Ã¢â¬â Classification of Personality Types of Myers and Briggs and Methods of Shaping Behavior. Answer. Factors Influencing Perception: A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside: 1)In the perceiver ) In the object or target being perceived or 3) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made 1. Characteristics of the perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing percep tion are: a) Attitudes: The perceiverÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes affect perception. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiverÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. ) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interest differs considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive Structure, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearances more readil y. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation.
Monday, July 29, 2019
The gender pay gap in the uk and why it still exists - Essay Example Workplace segregation remains prevalent as high concentrations of female employees are associated with relatively low rates of pay. And higher levels of part-time working are associated with lower rates of pay, even after other factors have been taken into account. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s employment is highly concentrated in female-dominated occupations which are often the lowest paid. Women are still under-represented in the higher paid jobs within occupations. Qualified women are characteristically denied top level jobs in corporate offices but instead of terming it what it is, sexism and discrimination, this form of unequal treatment is referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëglass ceilingÃ¢â¬â¢ effect. Women do indeed have to perform twice as well as a man to retain the same pay and position at similar occupational arenas. This discussion will examine barriers to equality in the workplace, the reasons for this cultural phenomenon, evidence to support this claim and some possible solutions. Women must struggle to cope with discrimination in the workplace as is evidenced by occupational segregation. This terminology refers to the reality that women tend to work in different sectors of the economy and occupy different employment standings than men within the same occupational group. Government statistics reveal that women are highly concentrated in certain jobs as 60 per cent of working women are employed in just 10 per cent of available occupations (Ã¢â¬Å"What is the pay gap?Ã¢â¬ , 2006). While about one-half of workers are in sex-dominated employment, women are engaged in a narrower scope of occupations than men. There are seven times more male-dominated non-agricultural jobs than female. Ã¢â¬ËSex-dominatedÃ¢â¬â¢ occupations are defined as when workers of one sex constitute more than 80 per cent of the labour force (Anker, 1998). In the UK, women constitute just 30 per cent of managers, 25 per cent of executives and 10 per
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Research Methods - Essay Example Subjects can either be tested once only (independent group design), or more than once or matched (repeated measures design). The advantages of the latter are that fewer participants are needed (as it may be difficult to find morbidly obese individuals), and this method can provide greater statistical power. On the other hand, there could be practice and carryover effects that would need to be minimised. In the alternative of an independent group design, it may be difficult to randomly assign the subjects and there could be large differences between individuals, which would make it difficult to make any meaningful observations. We would however have the advantage of having a control group so as to control some extraneous factors. Experimental Method Used and its Justification A repeated measures design is preferred due to the expected difficulty in obtaining the required subjects i.e. in finding morbidly obese individuals. They also reduce the effect of individual differences (Schinka, 2003:279). The second justification for a repeated measures design is the greater statistical power relative to the sample size (Amy, 1997). However, subjects will be selected at random and counterbalancing will also be used to offset any practice and carryover effects. The validity of the conclusions is threatened by factors that have either not been specified or included in the study and which could theoretically therefore influence the dependent variable.
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Assignment #3 - Essay Example l and means by which to reproduce. This he named Ã¢â¬Ënatural selection Ã¢â¬Ë or the survival of the fittest.Ã¢â¬â¢ The theory proposed that those individuals with the more successful adaptations would be able to get more food, and so would be healthier, live longer, and have more success at reproduction. The scientific world of the time was aware of variation, but the first principle of DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is that individuals vary in their heritable traits, so much so that that no two living beings are exactly similar. He first became aware of this because of his close observations of the various plant and animal species collected by him from the remote Galapagos Islands. He realised that although the species there resembled those from elsewhere they were actually unique to the islands, and in many cases to particular islands. Following the expedition he concluded that the environment affected evolution.. The organisms best suited to particular environment not only survive, but also become more and more sophisticated and specialized. Darwin noticed that variation was a characteristic belonging to all living beings and that through reproduction these traits would continue down the generations, the principle of genetics. He wrote about species adapting to its environment over time, giving it perhaps a genetic advantage over and above competitors, whether of the same species or from a different genus. Such a successful trait would be passed on to off spring. He also became aware that some species did not survive. In 1859 he wrote his famous book Ã¢â¬Ë On the Origin of SpeciesÃ¢â¬â¢. He wrote:- Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows.( Dennet.(1995). p. 64) Darwin also described how, through many millions of years and because of the
Friday, July 26, 2019
False Confessions in Mississippi - Essay Example Mississippi State has numerous records of individual wrongly convicted because of false confession. One of the clear examples is Bobby R. Dixon who suffered a wrongful conviction in Forrest County in 1980 alongside Larry Ruffin and Phillip Bivens. Bobby confessed to charges of rape and murder and later pled guilty in an attempt to avoid the death penalty, but imprisoned for 30 years.Ã Investigations found that Bobby was innocent and the real perpetrator captured. Bobby left prison in 2010 on grounds of medical parole and later in the same year he died of cancer (Mississippi Innocence Project). Arthur Johnson is another person wrongfully convicted in 1992 in Sunflower County with charges of rape and burglary. The court sentenced Arthur to 16 years imprisonment though DNA tests conducted in 2007 proved him innocent leading to his release in 2008. Further investigations with a DNA profile led to the identification of a man responsible for the crime that led to the conviction of Arthur. Kennedy Brewer is another victim of false confession that led to wrongful conviction 1995 and charged with rape and murder of girlfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter. The court sentenced Kennedy to death through lethal injection, but Dthe NA test carried later on evidence gathered from the scene of crime implicated another person. His exoneration came in February 2008 after serving 12 years imprisonment and being the fifth in death row (Mississippi Innocence Project). Police interrogators have also threatened suspects that about receiving heavier charges if they fail to admit and lighter charges if they confess responsibility for a crime that otherwise they are not. False confessions are admissions to criminal offenses and subsequent narrative of how and why the crime occurred by confessors who in reality are not responsible. False confessions are common in judicial systems, but mostly go unnoticed and unrecorded. The difficulty in noticing false confessions relates to the tendency of police not to keep records of such occurrences, which makes it difficult for researchers and criminal analysts to study their underlying characteristics (Mississippi Innocence Project).
Thursday, July 25, 2019
LION KING film analysis of the leadership issues in the film - Essay Example The question is, what are those qualities that make a strong leader? Why is it that some leaders are loved and respected by their followers forever while others fail to maintain the faith from their followers? The answer lies in their leadership styles. The movie Ã¢â¬Å"The Lion KingÃ¢â¬ , is an excellent example of different leadership styles (1994). Through the characters of Mufasa, Scar and Simba, the movie has clearly and distinctly described the qualities that make a strong and a weak leader. Leadership can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purpose.Ã¢â¬ (Rost 1991). This definition shows that a relationship is developed between a leader and the followers only when they have a common goal to achieve (Rost 104). A relationship cannot be developed if the goals of the leader and the followers differ. In the movie Ã¢â¬ËThe lion kingÃ¢â¬â¢, Mufasa is able to gain respect and love from his followers because he is able to understand their needs and works towards the fulfillment of those needs harmoniously. Mufasa displays a transformational leadership style through the quality of the relationship that he develops with his followers. A strong leader is the one who is able to form a relationship with his followers not on the basis of expectations but on the basis of trust and understanding. Transformational leaders take effort in nurturing the sense of self worth in the followers and boosting their self-esteem (Bass 1998). When the followers realise that their individual qualities are being recognised and nurtured by their leader, they feel that their individual needs are being taken care of. They feel enthusiastic and energetic under the guidance of such leader and hence, commit themselves to the achievement of goal in a genuine way. They are willing to give their best in an effort to reach their purpose (Bass 1998). In the movie Ã¢â¬ËThe lion kingÃ¢â¬â¢, Mufasa
Discuss the extent to which factor availability is no longer an effective explanation of the competitiveness of regions or count - Essay Example The essence of competitiveness and allied issues is to gain an insight into the economical wellbeing of the country and the effective allocation of resources. This paper concerns with the factors that drive regional competitiveness, and whether factor availability is a contributing factor to regional competitiveness in the modern era or not. The essay looks into the concepts of competitiveness and perfect competition from a microeconomics perspective. Considering the factors that influence competitiveness at the level of the firms, one can establish that competitiveness depends on the capacity of the firms to compete, progress and to make profits (Martin n.d.). Competitiveness Defined Competitiveness is present in the potential of the firm to make products on a regular basis which fulfill the criterion of open market with respect to price and quality amongst other factors. Moreover, it also relates to the competence of the firms in making products that are profitable. Competitiveness at a microeconomics level buttresses the notion that for a firm that fulfills the criterion of an open market, it needs to be more competitive than other firms in order to capture a share of the market. Likewise, a firm that is not competitive will not be able to sustain a large market share and over the period of time, it will be forced out of the business unless it is supported by some artificial protection (Martin n.d.). When considering competitiveness between regions, one has to look beyond the competitive and noncompetitive firms, and to include the common traits of competitiveness present between regions. According to the Sixth Periodical Report on the Regions, regional competitiveness can be defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"the ability to produce goods and services which meet the test of international markets, while at the same time maintaining high and sustainable levels of income or, more generally, the ability of (regions) to generate, while being exposed to external competition, r elatively high income and employment levelsÃ¢â¬ (Martin n.d.). Different Perspectives on Competitiveness The notion of competitiveness of the national level is much more debatable and ambiguous. Although policy makers consider the attainment of competitiveness with respect to other firms as the main goal of the economic policy, competitiveness has been severely criticized and has been considered to be primarily Ã¢â¬Å"meaninglessÃ¢â¬ (Martin n.d.); in fact, P Krugman, in his book Pop Internationalism, states that national competitiveness is a risky mania and has a vague macho ring to it (Krugman 1996). He argues that it is not correct to make a comparison between firms and countries because firms can be forced out of business if they are uncompetitive, but the same trend does not apply to countries. At the level of the firms, gaining market share affects other firms in the industry negatively, but on the regional or national level, the success
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Intro to lit questions - Essay Example Each of the answers he suggests have different effects, suggesting that the individual might become these things Ã¢â¬â hollow and dry like a raisin, deeply bitter and resentful like the sore, constantly hounded by it as by a strong smell, weighted down by it as with a heavy load or incapable of functioning. There are numerous political and societal values found throughout many of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s plays that should be considered as one reads the plays. For example, the concept of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s role in life during ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time must be considered in order to better understand the character Ophelia in Hamlet. Women in Victorian England were very restricted. Their realm was exclusively in the house and their actions were ruled by the important men in their lives, first their fathers and brothers, then their husbands and finally their sons if/when their husbands passed away. Living in the court as Ophelia did, she also had an equally strong duty to obey the wishes of the royal family. Understanding this role in life, it is easier to understand why she was driven mad by the actions of Hamlet. In attempting to be the ideal woman of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s era, she was given several equally weighty directives (presumably to encourage Hamlet to begin with, then to refute Hamlet, t hen to encourage him again) that required her to act in opposing ways at the same time that her emotions for Hamlet were thrown into a completely separate tailspin as he first seems to like her, then hates her, then likes her again. In Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ , the main theme is cultural identity, but several other themes are present as well, such as mother/daughter relationships, sibling issues and urban vs. rural values. This makes the story more universal because there are numerous ways by which readers can relate to the story regardless of their personal backgrounds.
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Discourse Community - Essay Example Many enjoy this and aspire to actually experience it. This is the main reason why car racing games are so popular. I remember watching an episode of the comedy series Malcolm in the Middle years ago. MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s father devised a plan to get him and his brothers out of school for the day to watch NASCAR. It was the first time they or he would ever watch it live. They were so excited because they know that it will be action-packed with cars going around at full speed. More specifically, his father is more excited at being able to watch cars flying and flipping around at the expense of the driver. Because admittedly so, granted that this may cause the life and limb of the driver, watching it happen is something to talk about. They all though they were going to have a blast and it will be so fast. But of course it was not. The race took hours with the cars going round and round for hundreds of laps. And much to MalcolmÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s disappointment, nothing eventful happened that day and they went home bored as ever. Of course, they were not the only ones unfamiliar with the rules of racing because they have only seen the highlights on television. Unlike that NASCAR event they have attended, safety is not always guaranteed on the race track. The driver must rely on his crew and his skills to be able to win and to ensure that he is not hurt whenever he goes out to race. Anyone who wants to learn this sport, as an spectator or as a would-be driver himself must know the rules, the proficiency and the composition of the sport. It contains a language all its own that must be learned to be able to keep track of what is happening. This is vital so that one will not be misled or unaware. A great example of the exclusive language used nonverbally during matches is the flags. The different colors signify different signals to the drivers and his team. The yellow flag or caution flag signifies that there is something wrong on the track and they must slow down.
Monday, July 22, 2019
The Road-Father Son Relationship Essay The Road by Cormac McCarthy, the man protects and guides the boy during their trudge to the south. However, in the story, they act more as companions than father and son, and the man treats the boy as an equal both in action and dialogue. Chased by cannibals, the boy he man seeks to defend the boy from both the cannibals and scavenge food for them to survive. As the man and boy trek down the road, cannibals closely hunt them and they often escape by hiding or by retreating away. The man often plunders empty houses, trying to find food and clothes for them. The man is successful, finding Ã¢â¬Å"crate upon create of canned goodsÃ¢â¬ (McCarthy 138). Ã¢â¬Å"Tomatoes, peaches, beans, apricots, canned ham, corned beefÃ¢â¬ , etc. (McCarthy 138) provides the food the man and the boy eats. The man carries a pistol with him used to shield them from cannibals. Before the man dies, he gives the boy the pistol, telling him to Ã¢â¬Å"keep the gun with you at all times. You need to find the good guys but you cant take any chances. Ã¢â¬ (McCarthy 278). As mentioned before, the man and boy communicate more as friends than relatives.. At the beginning of The Road, when the man first woke Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬â¢d reach out to touch the child sleeping beside himÃ¢â¬ to confirm the childÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being. The man will Ã¢â¬Å"read me [the boy] a storyÃ¢â¬ (McCarthy 7) and Ã¢â¬Å"held the boy close to himÃ¢â¬ (McCarthy 29). The boy demonstrates great maturity as he cares for the man by reminding him to Ã¢â¬Å"pour the hot water back [Ã¢â¬ ¦] and pour some of the cocoa into his ownÃ¢â¬ (McCarthy 34) and constantly reminding the man to take heed of his health. Eventually, after the man dies, he was Ã¢â¬Å"wrapped in a blanketÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (McCarthy 286) and the boy Ã¢â¬Å"sat beside him and he [the boy]
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Needs Assessment of Public Sector Organisation Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction. 1 2. The needs assessment to be carried out. 1 3. The Context. 1 4. Why a needs assessment would be useful. 1 5. The Needs Assessment Plan. 1 a. Process Outline. 1 b. Data Collection. 2 c. Data Analysis. 2 6. Plan for Evaluation. 3 7. Ethical considerations. 3 Bibliography. 3 Appendices. 3 1.Introduction. A needs assessment is a systematic approach used to identify the gaps in the current position, the factors that affect the performance and the changes needed to get it to the desired position. To achieve this there needs to be a clear and thorough understanding of the people who will be involved with the system or product, the activities involved and the goal of the system. The people who are involved or the stakeholders may have differing needs and this along with any unforeseen requirements or gaps should be captured in the assessment. There are three phases to the needs assessment process, the first phase is to make a plan, second phase is to gather and analyse data, and third phase is identify solutions and report back. 2.The needs assessment to be carried out. To develop a suitable IT system to capture, track and trace all stages and aspects of projects, from proposal to completion. With clear indications of where and how these link into the strategic and workplans and ability to provide a clear audit trails of all stages, documents, sign offs and authorisations relating to the proposal. 3.The Context. This is for a public sector organisation with over 50% of its budget being spent on projects. The projects mainly consists of research work which are outsourced using tendering processes. The current process is very disjointed, with different software being used depending on the stage, department and personnel preferences. There appears to be incomplete document audit trails. The current system has been in operation for a long number of years. The system needs to be able to provide information to various stakeholders about the current state of play of the project. Relevant information needs to be captured from multiple sources including the financial system. The system needs to comply with statutory regulations, corporate governance, public sector and EU guidelines and directives, and have suitable constraints to protect confidentiality and commercially sensitive information. 4.Why a needs assessment would be useful. There appears to be gaps in the processing of information and possible lack of guidance on the steps or next steps to be followed. A needs assessment would collect information about the stakeholders, target group or groups. It would establish what needs are being met, resources that currently exist and determine what needs are not being met. Following analysis of this information a proposed system plan will be furnished within the agreed timeframe. 5.The Needs Assessment Plan. a.Process Outline. The first step is to study and become familiar with the agreed terms of reference as set out by management. This will define the objective, scope, and limitations of the needs assessment. It will establish the lead person and contacts within the organisation, the resource requirements, expected costs and time frame for completion. This along with familiarisation of the mission statement, strategic plan, organisation chart, workflow chart and infrastructure of the organisation will help develop an understanding or concept of the organisations needs. Assessing the capabilities of the current system and gaining a clear understanding of the future needs of the system requires a comprehensive analysis. This analysis will be both qualitative and quantitative. This data gathering process will consisting of workshops, focus groups, interviews, and system observation. These methods will be used to produce information to analyse options and design the best possible system given the available resources. The organisation is relatively small and is divided into six departments headed up by a Senior Manager. A stratified random sampling method will be used to focus on identifying stakeholder needs, and involve all stakeholder groups and get the views of all the right people. a.Data Collection. Workshop. Initially a workshop will be held with the objective of getting senior managers to articulate a vision of the ideal system. This exercise will be a half-day facilitated by a consultant. It will attempt to succinctly define the scope of the system, the long-term functionality that the system is expected to have, and the major issues that the existing or new system must address. Security requirements, risk assessments, online approval processes and reporting requirements will be identified. Focus Group. Following on from the workshop a focus group consisting of at least two section managers, two project managers and two clerical / administrative staff from each department will be convened. It is expected that this will take a half day but may require a full day. The focus group will be led by a trained facilitator. This group is selected to provide a representative group of users of the system. It will provide an opportunity to identify, difficulties, gaps, expectations and establish what is working with the current system and what they feel is needed to meet the objectives identified in the workshop. Whether the difficulties experienced are due to obsolete technology or ineffective policies and procedures. The focus group will also provide an opportunity for this group identify missing or needed functions. Interviews. A number of stakeholders will be interviewed as part of the process to gain further insight public sector tendering and procurement processes and thresholds. Board approval processes along with relevant EU guidelines and directives. These will be semi structured interviews with stakeholders who may not have direct or regular contact with the system such as the Audit committee chairman, Comptroller and Auditor Generals officer, IT and Finance Managers. System observation. In order to gain further insight into the context, tasks, goals and to fill in the gaps it may be necessary to observe directly how specific tasks are preformed currently. It will involve selecting random proposed projects and following all stages from start to finish taking samples and examples of reports produced, authorisation requirements, technology used, time taken for specific tasks, and difficulties encountered. This step may require the use of video and photography. c.Data Analysis The data will be analysed using a grounded theory approach. This will incorporate both the qualitative (e.g. themes, patterns, quotes, pictures, descriptions etc.) and quantitative data (e.g. number of projects, number of people involved in projects, budgets, time taken to perform tasks, number of software packages etc.) . The data will be extracted in a systematic way to develop a conceptual model of the system required. This will be an iterative process. The data extracted from the workshops will be transcribed first, read, coded using an axial coding system. This is a two-step hierarchically process that will divide the data into major categories and subcategories. This will identify the critical objectives, work flows, interactions and communications. This will form the basis for guiding the focus groups and interviews. Following further analysis of these in a similar fashion the data will be assimilated. Essential Use cases will be compiled to capture what the new system is expected to do. 6.Plan for evaluation. Once needs and requirements have been established the results from the data analysis will be presented in a report and charts summarizing the findings and an outline of a conceptual model of the system. Initially a low fidelity prototype will be produced. This will allow the stakeholders to evaluate the product and allow for redesign. It is expected that this will be an iterative process until a suitable product is. 7.Ethical Issues It is important that the rights and dignity of participant in the assessment are protected. Participant are to be fully informed about the assessment being conducted and the purpose of the assessment. It is important to encourage staff to participate in this assessment but they must do so willingly. All participants should be encouraged to speak freely without fear of being penalised. They may withdraw at any time or refuse to participate in any part. The confidentiality of all participants will be protected and they will not be identified in any reports or published documents. Bibliography. Cairns, P. Cox, A.L. (ed). (2008). Research methods for human-computer interaction. Cambridge, UK. Cambridge University Press. [Accessed online 20/1/2017] Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H. 2016. Interaction design: beyond human-computer Interaction. 4th ed. Chichester: John Wiley Sons Ltd.
Criminal Technology Past To Future Criminology Essay Technology continues to change at a rapid pace after one type of technology is released another usually follows suit to compliment the first or to replace it. The same is true with policing styles as the eras changed the technology changed and shaped how officers handle situations. With so much technology out there it makes you wonder what could possibly be left. The truth is technology will never cease to change, just as policing styles will have to change to adapt. INTRODUCTION Over the years and through several eras policing has changed, along with the change of policing styles came the formation and implementation of technology that helped them along the way. From the political era to the more modern day community policing era was found recently to be lacking in products that were already being marketed. By the time we caught up we realized a little to late that these items we use now could have been in place and were available 30 to 40 years earlier. How did we first start with technology, when did we finally catch up and what are our best advances so far and what yet do we see coming ? I will explore this in the paper as we take shortcuts through past eras; their technological uses and advance through each era to post modern day technology, the benefits these contribute and what they got under wraps for our next step into technological advances in policing. Eras Policing, as we know it today has developed from various political, economic, and social forces. To better understand the role of police in society, one has to know the history of how policing became what it is today. Ã Policing has been categorized into three basic eras, which include the Political Era, Reform Era, and lastly the Community Problem-Solving Era that is the present form of policing. Political Era Policing style was quasi military consisting of a decentralized command structure resulting in control over precincts by ward leaders. An assigned officer was always closely tied to the neighborhood, slowness of communications and transportation limited officers contact with central command. Citizens were able to bring complaints to the officers that could be dealt with it on the spot as officers patrolled on foot. Based on their discretion these officers dealt with problem in accordance of the values and norms of the neighborhood of which they were in. During this time most officers came armed with the technology of a gun and a nightstick. Today these are still the first weapons of choice when called upon to use force. Telegraphs and telephones as well as police call boxes were the new jump in communications technology during this era. While the start of investigations with the Bertillon system for criminal Identification and fingerprinting crime scenes also became used. Reform Era The Reform Era brought about concerns of political influencing on policing. People worked to eliminate the involvement of politics to making policing more professional. With these changes more advances in technology were also implemented. Transportation and communication put police where they could receive calls from a central location and dispatch officers as well to respond more quickly over a widespread location. Police started decreasing the public aid to focus on combating crime. Police were hired based on qualifications not affiliations, the reform wanted police with detachment and a greater commitment to training. Reform policing had three key operational parts; foot patrol was replaced by cars equipped with the two-way radios as cars were being used to commit crimes. The availability of cars also meant more ground could be covered. Motorized police patrol was becoming a method of crime control. Rapid Response was important in three ways the first was you have a better chance at catching a criminal if you can reach the scene quickly, better chance of clearing the case if the criminal is caught. Most importantly the time in which it took to respond to a call was being judged because rapid response had become possible and the community not only required but also expected it. Investigations became a huge part of policing as these technologies were advancing. Policing was becoming more professional as their social services programs declined. Police started using new scientific techniques to follow up criminal investigations as they offered officers better incentives. Many technologies formed in this era were the foundation for much of what is used today. The only thing that has really changed is the way the techniques are applied. The use of directed and targeted patrol has increased; prioritizing calls in an effort to get to more important calls first and case screening to avoid wasting time on cases that were likely not going to be solved. These refinements to the techniques of this era are known as strategic policing. Community Era The Community Policing Era was brought on from The Professional Eras. There was also wide spread concern about the effectiveness and limitations of policing and their behavior due to officers frustrations with battling the same crime over and over (Uknown). In the 1960s the presidents commission on criminal justice is the main foundation in many of today changes found in law enforcement. The crime rate in the 60s had a dramatic increase, thus the government decided it was time to investigate the way the criminal justice system was run and how it could be made better. Cultural diversity and many different changes in the social structures of communities caused traditional policing to be less effective than before. System visionaries and police executives saw the failing system and started working on a plan to make it better. The 1970s new program safe and clean neighborhoods was formed it was intended to improve living conditions. Money was provided to take policemen of their cars and place them on foot patrol. This new program made calls to crimes more difficult, response slower, the work harder. Even though crime rates were not reduced it made citizens feel more at ease as it reduced their fears in these areas (H.Verschaeve, 2004). Within this era to present times new technologies came to surface due to the fact the presidents crime commission found a technology gap. Today this technology plays a huge role in how policing is mandated. Commissioners called for the introduction and establishment of a single telephone number to call the police, with this came the launch of 911 the one number for police and fire departments. Not long after came the computerization age being brought into policing these computer were used to not only for record keeping but also found useful for criminal investigations, crime analysis and budgeting. The most important computer based program after computers introduction of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC), inside the NCIC everything was stored and index from fugitives, missing persons and stolen property. This was practically the first technology used by police for computers during this time. The Automated Fingerprinting Information System (AFIS) was the next essential development in policing efforts; it had a grave disadvantage as other states did not have access to that information. Soon came patrol cars came equipped with their own computers with reporting systems and auto fingerprinting systems. As obstacles were seen during this time they worked to overcome the obstacle of incompatible technologies (Seaskate, 1998) Impact Technology had on Policing Technology has had an impact of making high quality information quickly available. With the capability of being able to collect information they are able to analyze and share data with stakeholders not only inside but also outside of government. Earliest applications included traffic accident files established in 1960s, since then programs for statistics operations and management program planning went underway. The machine that is so complex tool that it helps makes decisions for strategic planning and man to machine interactions. The success of these computers have been favorable. Users routine data processing is so highly structures it has proven to be rather effective and the implementation can be made with ease. However impact of the computer will vary from one department to the next making it difficult to generalize. It is perceivable that the impacts of a different nature are contemplated in structural changes, as direct major organizational shifts are not expected. For example it is perceived that use of computers will continue to result and has resulted in power shifts generally speaking raises in one persons decision making at the expense of another. Trends of this nature that seem to be occurring for example a shift in work activities related to routine and recording tasks, one of the biggest fears of technology is people being replaced by machines. When actually introduction of the computers increased jobs they needed people to carry out the computers data processing work (Colton, 1973). Current Advancements in Technology One of these would be the advancement of DNA evidence DNA can identify criminals with 99.9% accuracy information when biological evidence exists. There are DNA databases where samples of DNA are stored when someone has been convicted of a charge where DNA was involved. This system, called the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), maintains DNA profiles obtained under the federal, state, and local systems in a set of databases that are available to law enforcement agencies across the country for law enforcement purposes and came into existence in the late 1980s. In order to take advantage of the investigative potential of CODIS, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, states began passing laws requiring offenders convicted of certain offenses to provide DNA samples.Ã Currently all 50 states and the federal government have laws requiring that DNA samples be collected from some categories of offenders The benefits of this advancement is DNA Is so accurate it can ensue a fairness in the criminal justice it so accurate it can exonerate persons previously charged with a crime they did not commit due to negative matches in DNA (Using DNA to Solve Crimes, 2003). Another advancement in technology is Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) its a surveillance method used for several reasons from electronic tolls to traffic enforcement. The benefits are that it can be used through existing closed circuit television or road rule enforcement cameras and can read licenses plates on vehicles traveling up to 100 mph. The other benefits is that the pictures the camera takes is stored some are configured to even photograph the driver. It is able to take picture anytime of the day by using infrared lighting (Unknown, 2010). Future Roles of Technology Honestly the future of technology is surveillance equipment, what the military and government officials have coming out right now is absolutely astounding but the cross the border of privacy rights. The newest technology I see being implemented is TWS otherwise known as Through the Wall Surveillance, which is so advanced it can detect any slight movement such as breathing through a solid wall. As technology advances new ideas are always forming there are micro chips that can be implanted in people as well as sunglasses that have chips that will scan people as they walk by and will tell you their names and maybe a few lines about them. Other technologies already in effect but not yet widely used is facial recognition. The new biometric technology could be become a mainstream of the technological world but when does it cross the line of privacy? (Unknown, Modern Marvels: Survelliance Technology, 2004) CONCLUSION So you see as each era has gone by not only have the policing changed but also technology changed as well to suit its style. Even though some could have been implemented as early as 30 to 40 years earlier there must have been a reason it was not yet put into place. Even now there are things we can use that are not in place maybe because we are not capable of off setting the expenses, or there is concerns of availability and crossing the lines of privacy. With this new technology unfolding and just on the horizon it makes me also wonder if the policing style will change with it.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Halloween It was a dark and stormy Halloween night and Sal and Jess her best friend were at Sal's house for the night to watch movies. Knock, Knock, Knock, "Sal, someones at the door do you want me to answer it?", Jess yelled to Sal who was upstairs doing her hair in the bathroom. "Yeah Cool Jess its probably just some more annoying trick or treaters anyway", replied Sal. Jess got up off the couch and approached the door making sure to peer through the peephole to see who it was. All she could make out were two small dark figures so she guessed they were trick or treaters. She then opened the door just enough so she could have the latch on. "Grrrrrrr we are the creatures from hell", screamed the smaller of the two figures. Both the figures were dressed with a bed sheet that had obviously been painted black and thrown over their heads with just two tiny holes where the eyes would be. The other figure then said "whats it gunna be lady, trick or treat?" Jess opened the door fully now and beckoned them to come inside. "Just wait here", she said as she ran up the stairs and into the bathroom where Sal was still combing her hair. "Sal what should I give those two boys", asked Jess. "I dunno give them one of those chocolate things near the fridge", Sal replied. Jess turned and went back down the stairs into the kitchen to find the bars. "Are you still there boys?", she yelled. But there was no reply. Jess stopped and went back to the front door. To her surprise the boys had vanished and there was no sign of them. Fine she thought to herself at least it saves two more chocolate bars for me. Suddenly Jess heard a voice but she didn't know what it said or where it was coming from. "Is somebody there?", Jess inquired taking a huge gulp at the same time. "Yeah me", replied the voice in a strong tone. Arggghhhhh Jess screamed as she saw a tall man bearing a long sharp knife. Jess turned around and bolted back up the stairs as fast as she could. "Sal, Sal the...the...theres a huge guy with a knife downstairs", Jess stuttered. "What are you on about Jess?", replied Sal. "Im serious Sal there's a guy with a knife downstairs and he's 'gunna' kill us", shrieked Jess as the panic set in. Sal was begining to get worried now as she tried to think straight.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Category of the Individual In The Order of Things, Michel Foucault argues that there is a "pure experience of order and its modes of being" (Foucault xxi), that order exists and that it is necessary. Foucault is concerned with language because it is a mode by which we maintain order in the world, and according to his argument, what we should fear are heterotopias, which "undermine language," "make it impossible to name this and that," "shatter or tangle common names," and "destroy 'syntax' in advance" (Foucault xviii). When Foucault refers to 'syntax,' he is not just talking about our method of constructing sentences but "also that less apparent syntax which causes words and things (next to and also opposite one another) to 'hold together'" (Foucault xviii). In other words, there is need for us to take into account how the things in our world are related to each other. One of the ways in which we do this is through the method of categorization, which allows us to organize our world according to similarities an d differences. However, Foucault stresses us to be cautious, to realize that "we shall never succeed in defining a stable relation of contained to container between each of these categories and that which includes them all" (Foucault xvii). An all-inclusive category does not exist; it cannot exist. Foucault insists on the need to pay attention to what is present in the "empty space, the interstitial blanks separating all these entities from one another" (Foucault xvi). It is not that language is inadequate; it is just that we must be conscious of not only what is stated but also what is not directly stated, what is contained inside language and what is outside language. When we organize the things in the world in... ...gle words. I don't believe in 'sadness,' 'joy,' or 'regret.' Maybe the best proof that language is patriarchal is that it oversimplifies feeling" (Eugenides 217). We must realize that the only "normal" that exists is what is "normal" to the individual, to us. Our categories do not define us; we define ourselves. Through our experiences, we create identities that are unique to us, and we, as "others," must learn to value our individual experiences because that is where the answer is, where it always has been. Works Cited: Eugenides, Jeffrey. Middlesex. New York: Picador, 2002. Foucault, Michel. The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences. New York: Vintage Books. Moraga, CherrÃ e. "The Breakdown of the Bicultural Mind." Names We Call Home: Autobiography on Racial Identity. Eds. Becky Thompson and Sangeeta Tyagi. New York: Routledge.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Stonehenge Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On the British Isles more than nine hundred stone rings exist. Most people prefer to call them rings rather than circles for the reason that only two percent of them are true circles. The other ninety eight percent of these structures are constructed in an elliptical shape. Stonehenge in itself is roughly circular. Most of these rings cannot be dated exactly, but it is known that they are from the Neolithic period. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In southern England the Neolithic period begins around the time of the first farming communities in 4000 B.C. to the time of the development of bronze technology around 2000 B.C., by that time the construction of major monuments was mostly over. Because of the scarcity of the archaeological record at the stone rings, any attempts to explain the functions of the structures are guesses. Most attempts tend to reflect the cultural relatedness of their times. Most people believe that these rings were constructed by a group of people called Druids. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This idea of Stonehenge being constructed by Druids has become deeply implanted in the uneducated minds of popular culture from tie seventeenth century to the present. It is common knowledge that the druids had nothing to do with these rings. The Druids flourished after about 300 B.C., more than 1500 years after the last stone rings were constructed. Even more, there is no evidence that suggests that the Druids even used these stone rings for ritual purposes. Any Druidic connection with the stone rings is purely hypothetical. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, prehistorians attributed Stonehenge and other stone rings to Egyptian and Mycenean travelers who were thought to have infused Europe and Bronze age culture. With the development of carbon 14 dating methods, the infusion-diffusion of British Neolithic history was abandoned and the megalithic monuments of Britain were shown to predate those in most other countries. While the carbon 14 method provided approximate dates for the stone rings it was no use explaining their function. Research by scholars outside the discipline of archaeology suggested a use different to that of rituals. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the 1950s and 1960s, the Oxford University engineer Alexander Thom and the astronomer Gerald Hawkins pioneered the new field of archaeoastronomy-the study of the astronomies of ancient civilizations. Conducting precise surveys at various stone rings and other megalithic structures, Thom and Hawkins discovered many significant astronomical alignments among the stones. This evidence suggested that the stone rings were used as astronomical observatories. Moreover, the archaeoastronomers revealed the extraordinary mathematical sophistication and engineering abilities that the native British developed before either Egyptian or Mesopotamian cultures.
1| Dr Rajendra Prasad (1884Ã¢â¬â1963)| | 26 January 1950| 13 May 1962| Dr. S Radhakrishnan| 1952 election pageÃ &Ã 1957 election page Prasad was the first President of independent India from Bihar. Ã He was also an independence activist of the Indian Independence Movement. Prasad was the only president to serve for two terms in office. | 2| Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888Ã¢â¬â1975)| | 13 May 1962| 13 May 1967| Zakir Hussain| 1962 election page Radhakrishnan was a prominent philosopher, writer, aÃ Knight of the RealmÃ and also held the position ofÃ vice chancellorÃ of theÃ Andhra UniversityÃ andBanaras Hindu University. 10]Ã He was also made a Knight of theÃ Golden Army of AngelsÃ byÃ Pope Paul VI. | 3| Zakir Hussain (1897Ã¢â¬â1969)| | 13 May 1967| 3 May 1969| Varahagiri Venkata Giri| 1967 election page Hussain was vice chancellor of theAligarh Muslim UniversityÃ and a recipient ofÃ Padma VibhushanÃ andBharat Ratna. Ã He di ed before his term of office was ended. | | Varahagiri Venkata GiriÃ * (1894Ã¢â¬â1980)| | 3 May 1969| 20 July 1969| | Giri was appointed as acting president following the death of Hussain. Ã He resigned in a few months to take part in the presidential elections. | | Muhammad HidayatullahÃ * 1905Ã¢â¬â1992)| | 20 July 1969| 24 August 1969| | Hidayatullah served as theÃ Chief Justice of India, and was a recipient of theÃ Order of the British Empire. Ã He served as acting president until the election of Giri as the President of India. | 4| Varahagiri Venkata Giri (1894Ã¢â¬â1980)| | 24 August 1969| 24 August 1974| Gopal Swarup Pathak| 1969 election page Giri is the only person to have served as both an acting president and president of India. He was a recipient of the Bharat Ratna, and has functioned as Indian Minister of Labour and High Commissioner toÃ CeylonÃ (Sri Lanka). | 5| Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed 1905Ã¢â¬â1977)| | 24 August 1974| 11 February 1977| Basappa Danappa Jatti| 1974 election page Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed served as a Minister before being elected as president. He died in 1977 before his term of office ended, and was the second Indian president to have died during a term of office. | | Basappa Danappa JattiÃ * (1912Ã¢â¬â2002)| | 11 February 1977| 25 July 1977| | Jatti was the vice president of India during Ahmed's term of office, and was sworn in as acting president upon Ahmed's death. He earlier functioned as the Chief Minister for the State ofMysore. | 6| Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 1913Ã¢â¬â1996)| | 25 July 1977| 25 July 1982| Muhammad Hidayatullah| 1977 election page N. S. Reddy was the first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh State. Reddy was the only Member of Parliament from the Janata Party to get elected from Andhra Pradesh. Ã He was unanimously elected Speaker of theÃ Lok SabhaÃ on 26 March 1977 and relinquished this office on 13 July 1977 to become the 6th President of India. | 7| Gia ni Zail Singh (1916Ã¢â¬â1994)| | 25 July 1982| 25 July 1987| Ramaswamy Venkataraman| 1982 election page In March 1972, Singh assumed the position of chief Minister of Punjab, and in 1980, he became Union Home Minister. 19]| 8| Ramaswamy Venkataraman (1910Ã¢â¬â2009)| | 25 July 1987| 25 July 1992| Shankar Dayal Sharma| 1987 election page In 1942, Venkataraman was jailed by the British for his involvement in theIndia's independenceÃ movement. After his release, he was elected to independent IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Provisional Parliament as a member of the Congress Party in 1950 and eventually joined the central government, where he first served as Minister of Finance and Industry and later as Minister of Defence. | 9| Shankar Dayal Sharma 1918Ã¢â¬â1999)| | 25 July 1992| 25 July 1997| Kocheril Raman Narayanan| 1992 election page Sharma was Chief Minister ofÃ Madhya Pradesh, and the Indian Minister for Communications. He has also served as the governor ofÃ Andhra Pradesh,Ã PunjabandÃ Maharashtra. | 10| Kocheril Raman Narayanan (1920Ã¢â¬â2005)| | 25 July 1997| 25 July 2002| Krishan Kant| 1997 election page Narayanan served as India's ambassador to Thailand, Turkey, China and United States of America. He received doctorates in Science and Law and was also a chancellor in several universities. Ã He was also the vice-chancellor ofÃ Jawaharlal Nehru University. 24]| 11| A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (1931Ã¢â¬â)| | 25 July 2002| 25 July 2007| Bhairon Singh Shekhawat| 2002 election page Kalam, was a scientist who played a leading role in the development of India's ballistic missile and nuclear weapons programs. Ã Kalam also received theBharat Ratna. | 12| Pratibha Patil (1934Ã¢â¬â)| | 25 July 2007| Incumbent| Mohammad Hamid Ansari| 2007 election page Patil is the first woman to become the President of India. She was also the first female Governor of Rajasthan. | Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â ¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Timeline
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
ACT I1. While Shakespe be presents the sphere of Venice as a luff of civilization, is slow turns into a move into in of un-civilization and disputes. For example, Roderigo and Iago wake up Brabantio and tell him that thither atomic number 18 thieves in his ho wasting dis consolationh ageing. In reply, Brabantio puts This is Venice. My ho workout is non a grange. This shows how Venice is non commonly a situate with interrupting up to nowts. . Shakespe be too shows how Venice is slow d bear adequate corrupt. This is demonstrated when Desdemona elopes with Othello. Brabantio orders a expect to twoer Othello. When Othello tells the Duke Brabantio accusation atomic number 18 simulated an new(prenominal) search is put in place for Desdemona for questioning. Desdemona tells her dad that she is marital to the fix, Othello. Brabantio consequently disowns Desdemona, his daughter which is a sign of Venice becoming un-civilized. This is showing un-civilization because in Venice it is upliftedly incredible for a livid women to marry a raw com property and for a women to decline her fathers orders. Since Shakespeare does non go into more detail or so Othellos background, it mootms as if his homeland is un so fartful. Othello is referred to as a tie down which is a common put up rign to those who are from Africa.2. Since Shakespeare starts the bunco with Roderigo and Iago, it to give the earshot distingui pretermit information the p jam. They some(prenominal) contri calm downe to the exposition because they assistance the hearing understand the situation through and through Iagos and Roderigos point of view. Iago is a precise intelligent, publicipulative man and Roderigo is a foolish, naive and stupid. Iago kind with Roderigo is that he is just victimisation him Roderigo is devastated to learn that Desdemona had eloped with Othello, so Iago uses this too his advantage. In act 1 scene 3 Roderigo pleads, What should I do? / I witness it is my shame to be so fond, that it is non in my uprightness to cleanse it. This ingeminate shows Roderigo lecture to Iago conclude to his extol for Desdemona.3. Since Iago expect to be promoted to lieutenant, and Michael Cassio got the spot instead, Iago final cause his strike back against both Cassio and Othello. Iago was close with Othello at the root word and through bulge the shape continues to hit to be fri devastations with him only is not. This shows how Iago is not rattling imprecateful. The side by side(p) advert expresses Iagos groundless to cont finisds the situation. Off-capped to him, and by the faith of man I complete my price, I am cost no worsened a place. besides he (as loving his own self-respect andpurposes) Evades them with a bombast circumstance abominably stuffed with epithets of war, And in conclusion Nonsuits my mediators. For Certes, says he, I deliver already chose my reachicer. And what was he? Forsooth, a heavy (p) arithmetician, One Michael Cassio, a Florentine. The succeeding(a) name shows how upset Iago is with Michael Cassio wee-weeting the promotion, and this is the reason w presentfore Iago is angry with Othello.4. Since Othello is a black man from an unidentified part of Northern Africa, he is seen as an reveallander in Venice. He was superstar time enslaved and has g whiz on numerous harsh battles and journeys in m whatsoever move of the world. Yet, Othello has a t terminusency to try and buy off back the best in hatful and he trusts many until it is proven that he should no bulkyer start faith in them. Othello is well k like a shotn to be a good general due to his designer(prenominal) experience in war and he is respectful towards people even when they are not respectful to him. This deal be seen in the interest retell when Brabantio is genuinely ill-bred and disrespectful to Othello solely he responds saying, Hold your hands, Both of you of my inclining and the equaliser This shows how he is raining calm in a precise heated parley. When Othello speaks and interacts with former(a) guinea pigs he is respectful because he is an alien and does not tint comfort able as he would in his homeland. By marrying Desdemona Othello is able to opinion less like an extraneousr in the community in Venice and Cyprus.5. Since Desdemona was underarm ab issue her drive in for Othello her father, Brabantio did not turn in about Othello and Desdemona seeing each opposite. Brabantio is modify late at night by Roderigo and Iago yelling at him that there is a thief in his house who has stolen his daughter, Desdemona. Brabantio and Roderigo accept a discussion about how the tie down and Desdemona are seeing each some other. The following summon shows the conversation with Roderigo and Brabantio talking about Desdemona and the Moor. Brabantio Raise all my kindred. Are they get married think you? Roderigo Truly, I think they are. spiel I pro spect I raps auspicateion 19 Lines 187-190. The summons shows how Roderigo is informing Brabantio that his daughter, Desdemona and Othello are married. Brabantio takes that the Moor casted a spell upon Desdemona in order for Desdemona to fall in bask with Othello. This shows that at the conviction women were expected to spang a man that her father would pass of.The following recite is a conversation surrounded by Brabantio and Othello. The quotation shows how Brabantio believes Othello rigid a spell upon Desdemona so that she would fall in love with him. Damned as mebibyte art,thou hast enchanted her practise I barb II paginate 25 Line 83. The plagiarize shows how upset Brabantio is at Othello because Othello and Desdemona are together. The following quotation reveals how Desdemona and Brabantio move toward each other about the marriage. Desdemona I am hitherto your daughter. only if heres my economize. Brabantio God be with you I go for d 1. execution I Scene II I page 41 Lines 213- 219. Brabantio could not accept the fact that Desdemona is in love with Othello. The quote shows how Brabantio tells Desdemona that he is disinherit her and how he requires no liaison to do with Desdemona any more(prenominal). It is important that Desdemona and her father separate at this time in the die hard because it leases Iago to put his plan of savage into action. Desdemona has no family anymore and now she is going to travel with Othello to a place of warfare. At this point in the knead Desdemona is actually vulnerable.6. Othellos and Desdemonas disposition of their love and descent are not equivalent to sensation another. Othello believes their love was founded upon his politesse and torturous past. Desdemona feels that she fell for his sincerity and strength, hence intriguing her and gaining her love. When Othello moldiness explain his love for Desdemona in the presence of her father and the Venetian council he explains he flirted her thro ugh his majestic stories and he loved her for her sympathy and aww, not because of qualities she possessed. He explained My write up macrocosm done, she gave me for my tenor a world of sighs she thanked me and bade me, if I had a friend that loved her, I should exclusively teach him how to tell my story, and that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake. She loved me for the dangers I had passed, and I loved her that she did pity them ( comprise 1. Sc. 3). He in the end loved her for diagonal his ego and she loved him for his bra rattling(prenominal) and heart, though he lacked in humbleness. Othello and Desdemona do not share a reciprocated love for one another.7. Because Iago and Othello are contrasting constituents, their manners of speechmaking are really different. Othellos display case is very respectful to others. coif up when he is beingness insulted, he remains calm. He is in any case very truthful and abrupt with his words. On the other hand, Iago is duplici tous throughout Act 1. He often has in two focuss meanings behind his words. For example, he tells Brabantio, An old black ram/ Is tupping your white ewe. This is a crude(a) way of sexual relation Brabantio that Othello has married Desdemona. This shows the going between the grammatical cases. It is also significant since Othellos trusting nature is whatIago willing use to betray him.8. When the Duke of Venice tells Brabantio, Your son in right is more fair than black. this shows that not everyone in Venice shares Brabantios views on Othello. The Duke inadequacys Brabantio to look infra his son in laws skin and see that he is fair and deserves to be respected. He Senators and the Duke admire Othello and that is why the Duke defended Othello when Brabantio accused his of employ witchcraft on Desdemona. The Duke then responded and gave Othello the eulogy that he is fair. This word is worrying because it stumbles people think about Othellos race and how he is different fr om everyone else. Even the color of his skin has not prevented him from achieving high rank in the Venetian familiarity. These achievements pee earned Othello respect from the people around him. By reading the play Othello you are able to depict the Venetian nine in depth.9. Since Brarbantios says to Othello She has deceived her father, and may thee, it shows how Desdemona cleverness betray Othello. This is very important because ulterior in the play Othello thinks that Desdemona does betray him. The play show that women are viewed in society as being loose, and untrust worthy. 10. Since Othello is more of an outside he would fit in with the Turkish society. It is very important that Othello protects Cyprus because it communicates to the audience that the Venetian and the religion is superior, showing that Othello has much source.Act II1. In Act 2 Shakespeare represents Cyprus as the land of partying and recklessness. This furthers the action of the play because it gives Iago a lead in his plan.Cyprus is exposit very highly by Othello in the following quote How does my old fellowship of this isle?Honey, you shall be well want in Cyprus, I have found great love amongst them. O my sweet, Shakespeare uses Cyprus because its the perfect place to help Iago get revenge on Othello without any suspicions being raised. In Cyprus everyone lets is excited that they do not have to fight in the war and have a swarm of celebrations. This furthers the action because Iago gets Cassio drunk and Cassios lieutenancy gets stripped, the following quote shows Cassio upset that he got his lieutenancy taken away. Reputation, reputation, Reputation O, I have unconnected my reputation This builds suspense because the audience is graduation exercise to see how Iagos plan is slowly locomote into place.2. Since Cassio is handsome, trusting and brave he is a very unique character. He helped confort Desdemona when Othello was console at sea. The following quote showings ho w respectful, kind, and feel for Cassio is to Desdemona, Hail to thee, Lady and the grace of heaven He is not yet arrived, nor bonk I aught moreover that hes well and will be shortly here. This quote shows Cassios respect towards Desdemona and him soothe her down about Othello not being present.3. Cassio is manipulated by Iago because Iago is planning to ruin Cassio so he can get the place as lieutenant. Iago learns about Cassios weaknesses and uses them against him. This includes his potable problem, which led to Cassio getting fired by Othello. Also Cassios reputation for with women sets the nucleotide for how Iago convinced Othello that Cassio was interested in Desdemona. Iago have sexs that by getting Othello to think Desdemona is chisel on him, that he will shape highly agitated. Iago uses Brabantios words to sway Othellos thoughts throughout the textbook. In the descent, Brabantio said savor to her, Moor, if thou hast eyeball to see She has deceived her father, and may thee. Which means, she deceived me and she will most plausibly do it to you too.4. As the audience reads through Act II Iagos plan begins to unfold. It is also revealed to the audience that Iago has a way of identifying other characters weaknesses and then manipulating these weaknesses to his advantage. As Iago begins to share his plans and ideas the audience receives more insight into the plot of the story and what Iago has in mind next. Iago deceives people by ever making them believe that he is keeping their best interest in mind. By having the other characters believe that he is honest Iago, as the characters come to call him, he is then able to bend them to believe some topic or do something else that will help Iago with his plan. Iago is revealed to be a silken character with only his own interests in mind. A quote from Othello when Iago is oration chimerically is, I had rather have this spit cut from my mouth/ Than it should do villainy to Micheal Cassio. ( Othello, Verses 236-237) This quote shows the readers how Iago says one thing to other characters, when the audience make loves that he wants to get disengage of Micheal Cassio. Even though the audience knows that Iago is disquisition falsely, the other characters in the play muted have no suspicion about Iagos plan of revenge. This duologue is one way that we learn moreabout Iago in the second act.5. Since Cassio and Iago are foils, the linguistic communication they use to speak to others are very different. Cassio speaks more respectfully while Iago is rude and wit. For example the following quote shows how Cassio is speaking very highly and respectful when talking to Desdemona. Hail to thee, lady, and the grace of heaven, before, behind thee, and on every hand Enwheel thee round. (Act 2 Scene 1 rascal 65 Lines 94-96) In contrast, Iago is very disrespectful to women especially to his married woman, genus genus genus genus genus genus genus genus Emilia. The following quote shows Iago yelling at his married woman to be quite. Go to Charm your tounge.What, are you mad? I charge you to get home. (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 251 Lines 222 and 231) The quote shows how Iagos dictions is far more ill-mannered in contrast to Cassios language.Act III1. In the jump of Act 3, Scene 3 Othello is scoldish in love with Desdemona, only if towards the end he becomes full of desirousy. Othello believes that Desdemona has had an affair with his once loyal lieutenant, Cassio. The reason he trust in such(prenominal) lies is because his good friend, Iago, has convinced Othello of Desdemonas dishonesty. Iago persuades Othello by feeding him false grotesque images of Cassio and Desdemona and Gplants Desdemonas hankey, a commit from Othello, in Cassios room. I know not that plainly such a hankey- / I am sure it was your wifes did today / See Cassio pass over his beard with (Act 3, Sc. 3). What is most surprising is Othello, who promptly believes Iagos statements. Othel lo, obviously not totally trusting Desdemona to be faithful, was most likely led to this paranoia subsequently Desdemonas father, Brabantio, place the thought of her betraying Othello after Brabantio was betrayed by Desdemona himself. With this proof, Othello has no option but to believe Iago and his ingratiatory and duplicitous dialogue.2. Emilia develops a close descent with Desdemona. Emilia and Desdemona bond over conserve trouble Emilias bitter take on her married vitality with Iago contrasts with Desdemonas marriage to Othello. Emilia is honest even though she caused the stool with Desdemona strike, but she redeems herself, or at least(prenominal) gives a good shot at trying. Emilia who discovers the truth about Iagos plotting and tries to reveal it. Emilias relationship with Iago is not strong, and Iago uses Emilia as his tool. Iagohas no ability to love someone or something. This quote is proof that her husband uses her, The ills we do, their ills (husbands) hear us so?(Act 3)3. In the play Othello, Shakespeare uses a love token, Desdemonas handkerchief to symbolize a relationship between two people. Othello gave Desdemona a handkerchief, as a turn over that represented their marriage bond itself. One problem that the handkerchief causes is that it was handled by almost everyone in the play. The main thing the handkerchief symbolizes is Desdemonas fidelity for Othello. When Cassio gets ahold of the handkerchief, Othello feels as though Desdemona has been unfaithful to him. When Desdemona is trying to ease Othellos headache she drops her handkerchief. Emilia picks it up and gives it to Iago, her husband so she could get on his good side. I am de argus-eyedful I have found this napkin. This was her firstly remembrance from the Moor. My wayward husband hath a hundred times wooed me to steal it. precisely she so loves the token. (Act 3 Scene 3 Lines 334 to 337) Iago then tells Othello that Cassio has wiped his beard with Desdemonas handkerc hief and thats when they decide to sweep away both Desdemona and Cassio. Desdemona continues to look for her lost handkerchief and when Othello asks for it, she gets even more nervous. With Desdemonas handkerchief it make all of Iagos plan to come togetheOthello QuestionsAct IV1. The handkerchief of all things plays a key and important voice in act four because it is what leads Othello to believe that Cassio has slept with Desdemona. Handkerchief confession- handkerchief to confess and be hanged for his labor (Act 4 Scene 1) this quote by Othello explains his thoughts towards Cassio and Desdemona seeing each other. Othello becomes very upset because the handkerchief was the first gift from Othello to Desdemona to represent his love for her.2. Othellos character is changing by in the beginning of the play Othello begins as a appalling guy who is a respected war hero, and loving husband. Towards the end of the play Othello becomes knock-down-and-drag-out and insanely jealous hus band who murders his own wife after Iago convinces him that Desdemona has been unfaithful. The following quote shows Desdemona being slapped by Othello Othello I am glad to see you mad. Desdemona Why, sweet Othello Othello Striking her raise up This showshow Othello slowly becomes less respectful towards Desdemona which is how his character is changing.3. The effect when Othello slapped his wife Desdemona in worldly concern was that he was becoming an insane man and that he wasnt fit to be the general anymore. Also the slap brought necrosis upon Othello because no one thought he would slap his wife that he was so loving and gentle towards. The following quote shows Lodovico speaking with Iago about Othellos behavior. Is this the baronial Moor whom our full senate Call all in all sufficient? Is this the nature Whom honey could not shake? Whose solid virtue The shot of accident nor dart of expectation Could neither graze nor pierce? When people saw this, they began to question O thellos judgment. This reveals the diverseness in character within Othello. He went from a loving, nice leader unto an angry, inglorious man.4. The contrasting characters Desdemona and Emilia, form an interesting and important relationship in the play Othello. Desdemona is very sheltered from the ways of the world and Emilia is very down to earth and experienced. They have very different views on marriage Emilia states she would commit fornication if it gained her husband. The following quote shows their conversation. Emilia In troth, I think I should, and break t when I had done. Marry, I would not do such a thing for a joint-ring, nor for measures of lawn, nor for gowns, petticoats, nor caps, nor any petty exhibition. But for the unit world? Why, who would not make her husband a cuckold to make him a monarch? I should reckon purgatory for t. Desdemona Beshrew me, if I would do such a wrong for the whole world .Desdemona states that she is loyal to her husband. One thing that i s alike(p) about these marriages is the lack of trust and attention reveal the fragileness of the marriage. This scene shows the womens cloistered life and how they are not incessantly the way the display themselves.Othello QuestionsAct V1. Othello pops Desdemona because he was convinced by Iago that she was cheating on him with Cassio. He doesnt want to have to kill her because she is the love of his life, but Othello feels so betrayed, upset, and angry that he thinks its the best solution. The audience knows that Desdemona was always wholly loyal to Othello and neer had a relationship with Cassio.Othello thinks that he is solving the problem but really he is making a huge mistake. He is so distraught over having murdered her, that he kills himself as well. Yet Ill not shed her blood Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, And fluent as monumental alabaster. Yet she must die, else shell betray more men. Put out the clean-living, and then put out the light If I quench thee, thou firing minister, I can again thy former light restore, Should I repent me but once put out thy light, gravitational constant cunningst pattern of excelling nature, I know not where is that Promethean heat That can thy light relume. When I have pluckd the rose, I cannot give it vital outgrowth again. It must needs wither Ill smell it on the tree The quote shows how he was struggling with choosing if he should kill her or not to.2. After the demolition of Desdemona, Emilia begins to variety out Iagos plan. Once Emilia is able to figure it while talking with, she begans to realize her husbands true self. Before Iago was not very pleasant toward his wife, Emilia, but she never said anything about it because women were supposed to be obedient Emilia starts to speak out because she is upset of Desdemonas murder. Emilia says, Do thy worst. To Othello as he pulls out his vane on her even though she is strip but he is mad because she is defying a man and that was not allowed during that time period. Women were expected to be compliant, which is shown to later when Emilia says, I will not charm my tongue, I am bound to speak. This quote shows how women were not supposed to give their input into things. Because Emilia finally stood up for herself and others, consequently she was killed by Iago.3. Before Othello kills himself he gives a long speech about how he should be remembered. For example he wants to be remembered as a person who loves strongly but not wisely. After he stabs himself he kisses Desdemona because before he killed her he kissed her and wants to do the same for himself. The following quotation shows this. I kissed thee ere I killed thee. No way but this, Killing myself, to die upon a kiss. Act V Scene II Page 265 Lines 420-421. He does confess to killing Desdemona and downslope it greatly.The Play as a whole1. When Iago is describing his vengeful plan against Othello to his loyal companion, Roderigo, he explains that he is not what he w ill hidehimself to be. The quote I am not what I am (Act 1, Sc. 1) told by Iago could also apply to more than one of the characters. Desdemona, portrayed by her father as a timid and nave child, is the one who betrays his trust by eloping with The Moor, Othello. Your daughter, if you have not given her leave, / I say again, hath made a gross revolt, / fix her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes / In an extravagant and wheeling noncitizen (Act 1, Sc. 1). Therefore, in the text, Iago is not the only character who pretends to be something they are not in order to trick someone else and disguise their underlying plans.2. Since Iago destroyed Othellos life very cruelly, it is likely that he had some(prenominal) motivations for his deception. In the beginning, Iago states that he felt betrayed that Othello had promoted Cassio to the position he felt he deserved. This was probably a large factor of his deception, since Cassio was targeted for murder in Iagos plot. Another motive was that there were rumors about Othello sleeping with Iagos wife, Emilia. Iago also causes Desdemonas death, saying, Nothing can or shall content my soul / work I am evened with him, wife for wife. In the end, jealousy of Othello awaits to be Iagos motive. He is jealous of Cassios promotion, jealous of Othellos beautiful wife and feels betrayed by Othello.3. During this play Iago is able to manipulate Othello threw his weaknesses which are self doubt, his race and that he is fiendishly in love with Desdemona. Iago uses all of the characters weaknesses to launcher their downfall. Mostly, he wants Othello to pay for what he did by making Cassio lieutenant and not him. From the beginning of the play, Iago proclaimed that he would make Othello pay by saying, I am not what I am. (Act 1 Scene 1 Line 71) Othello is prone to jealously is alarmed that Desdemona will leave him for a Venetian man. This also plays into his race because he always feels like an outsider throughout the whole play. O ne reason Othello was manipulated so easily was because of all the proof Iago was giving him. When Iago was telling him this information, Othello should have gone to figure out if it was true if Othello would have noticed Iago was being dishonest. Desdemona ended up paying for Othello gullibility when Othello smothered her with a pillow. Racial focus is heavy during the play because they really want to emphasize that Othello is an outsider and doesnt function in Venice. The only reason Othello has power is because he is the General, but even though he is the general he still is modest. Whentalking to the Duke in Act 1 Scene 3 he starts off explaining how he is a bad poet but then says this elaborate and long explanation about his and Desdemonas love. From the beginning to the end Iago was able to manipulate everyone because they were all caught up in somebody or something else.4. Since Emilia and Desdemona had different viewpoints on love, the play does not suggest whether or no t Emilia or Desdemona is correct. Emilia and Iagos relationship was not very loving, also Emilia said she would cheat on her husband which indirectly states she is not loyal to him. In contrast, Desdemona is very loyal and loving towards Othello, even after she was done wrong by him she was still loyal. This can be shown in the following quote when Desdemona is dying after Othello kills her Desdemona A guiltless death I die. Emilia O, who hath done this deed? Desdemona Nobody, I myself. This shows how she still is remaining loyal to Othello by not saying that he killed her.5. Othellos heroic and military proficiency allow him partial credenza into Venetian society. This acceptance is temporary because he doesnt feel that he has been embraced by Venetian Society, he is both an insider and an outsider. On one hand, he is a Christian and experienced military leader, commanding respect from the Duke, and many Venetian citizens. On the other hand, being a black Moor and a alien in Ven ice also subjects Othello to some racialism epically by Brabantio and Iago. The following quote shows Iago describing Othello and Desdemonas relationship Even now, now, very now, an old black ram ewe. Arise, arise devil will make a grandsire of you. Is tupping your white Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, Arise I say The quote shows a racial slur toward Othello.6. The addition of Bianca, causes her to be more of a women stereotype. Cassio does not mistreat his wife unlike Iago and Othello. Bianca is not seen as much throughout the play. On the other hand, Desdemona is a brave and beautiful woman who stood up to her father, and traveled with her husband. Desdemona and Othello have a very strong relationship at the beginning of the play. Othello starts out very respectful towards his wife, but slowly is rude to her. Emilia and Iago are married, but Iago does not respect Emilia and he treats her badly, he says To have a foolish wife. He does not have any respect for her. Iago s ays rude things to Emilia and allshe does is try and please him. every(prenominal) three of the women have one thing in common, they all end up without a husband at the end of the play.7. The play does reinforce racial stereotypes. For example, Othello is communicate as a moor, making it seem as though he isnt at the same level as them in the social hierarchy. The following quote is an example of when Othello is referred to as the Moor. Is this the noble Moor? Even though he is called the noble Moor is he not lead by name, which makes him seem more of an outsider.8. I believe that we should admire Desdemona for her love. She did everything she could to make Othello happy. It is very unfortunate that Iago was able to manipulate Othello into sentiment he had to kill her for something that she didnt do. I kissd thee ere I killd thee no way but this 359 Killing myself, to die upon a kiss.9. Shakespeare has placed a very small get of action in the play and instead placed a large to uchstone of dialogue. Shakespeares reasoning behind this use of dialogue is to affect the reader by allowing them to get to know the characters more. This allows the characters to be characterized by what they say and by what other characters say about them. The readers then go through and are preserved through the eyes of others, mostly Iago, and this allows Shakespeare to help and give accepted information to the audience. Also, the reader learns a lot about the characters through dialogue and dialogue helps the reader to feel more complex in the play. When Iago says, I am not what I am, the audience is able to feel more involved and to get more information regarding Iagos characterization than in other parts of the play.10. Because Iago is trying to get revenge on Othello for not being promoted, the main theme of the text would be jealousy. Iago is jealous of Cassio that he got the promotion to become lieutenant. The following quote shows how Iago is upset that he was not promo ted. I know my price, I am worth no worse a place say he, I have already chose my officer. And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician one Michael Cassio (Act 1 Scene 1 Page 7 Lines 12-21) The quote shows how jealous Iago is that Othello chose Michael Cassio to be lieutenant. Another way Othello by William Shakespeare, shows jealousy is when Othello kills his wife because he thinks that she is cheating on him. It seems that Desdemona is cheating on Othello with Cassio, but she is not. Sadly Othello does not know that it is Iagos plan to get revenge on Othello. Consequently, Othello kills his own wife. The following quoteshows when Othello confronts his wife about seeing Cassio, also the quote shows Othello killing his wife. By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in s hand. O perjured woman, thou dost stone my heart, (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 241 Lines 77-78) Twas I that killed her. (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 247 Line 160) This quote shows how Othello was jealous that Desdemona was with other guys . Since the plot revolves around jealousy it is steal that the main theme in this text would be jealously.