Monday, May 25, 2020
The term vector has different definitions in science, primarily depending whether the topic is math/physical science or medicine/biology. Vector Definition in Math and Physics In physical science and engineering, a vector is a geometric object which has both magnitude or length and direction. A vector is commonly represented by a line segment in a specific direction, indicated by an arrow. Vectors are typically used to describe physical quantities which have a directional quality in addition to a quantity that could be described by a single number with a unit. Also Known As: Euclidean vector, spatial vector, geometric vector, mathematical vector Examples: Velocity and force are vector quantities. In contrast, speed and distance are scalar quantities, which have magnitude but not direction. Vector Definition in Biology and Medicine In the biological sciences, the term vector refers to an organism that transmits a disease, parasite, or genetic information from one species to another. Examples: Mosquitoes are a vector of malaria. A virus may be used as a vector to insert genes into a bacterial cell.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
If your software or application has an integrated billing solution then you ll also need a payment gateway. Which is an online payment processing solution that allows you to link the client s payment account with their application or software account. Allowing the client s credit account details to be far more secure than if they would be if they were sent online. Making Payment Easier An online payment processing solution greatly improves the ease of payment via credit cards. Customers will no longer have to make the long drive to brick-and-mortar stores to make their purchases. Instead being able to perform transactions by using any computer connected to the internet from the comfort of their homes. Convenience Online payment processing solutions allow customers to make item purchases with only a few simple clicks of the mouse. An online payment processing solution can make purchases so easy even those who aren t skilled with computers can easily make online purchases quickly and easily. Making it easy for anyone to enjoy making purchases over the internet. Unlike normal stores, online stores can remain opened twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Which makes it a lot more convenient for any customers who wish to purchase something whenever is most convenient for them. Online payment processing services perform transactions at a much greater speed than manual processing. As well as ensuring error-free computations and faster processing time. Which meansShow MoreRelated Community Supported Agriculture Essay1355 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnutrients in the soil have been depleted, making the land barren in a number of years. One solution to these concerns is a recent development in agricultural strategy, known as community supported agriculture, or CSAs. 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This concept is a fast growing industry that allows its participants to buy or sell products and services to each other using electronic devices via the Internet. With this increasingly huge industry comes a danger of security among its users. It is quite a concern to the general public that they may have theirRead MoreChpt 1 Essay8866 Words Ã |Ã 36 PagesSystems Analysis and Design Ninth Edition End of Chapter Solutions Chapter one Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design ANSWERS TO CASE-SIM: SCR ASSOCIATES Introductory note: The SCR case study provides a valuable real-world experience for students. The case involves an imaginary IT consulting firm that maintains a realistic Web site, complete with a company intranet that students can access. The student becomes an entry-level systems analyst reporting to a supervisorRead MoreTasteless Tea Company8250 Words Ã |Ã 33 Pages including responses to a list of case study questions and requirements posed by the instructor. 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Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4669 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/14 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Coke Ethical Issues Our product is quite healthy. Fluid replenishment is a key to health. Coke does a great service because it encourages people to take in more and more liquids. Michael Douglas Ivester, CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s Chairman and CEO. Public schools are funded by the public to educate the children as provided by state law. It is totally inappropriate that its facilities and employees are being used by corporations to increase their own profits on public time and with public dollars. Dr. Brita Butler-Wall, Executive Director, Citizens Campaign for Commercial-Free Schools, US. THE RECALL On June 13, 1999, Coca-Cola (Coke) recalled over 15 million cans and bottles after the Belgian Health Ministry announced a ban on CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s drinks, which were suspected of making more than 100 school children ill in the preceding six days. This recall was in addition to the 2. 5 million bottles that had already been recalled in the previous week. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products namely Coke, Diet Coke and Fanta had been bottled in Antwerp, Ghent and Wilrijk, Belgium while some batches of Coke, Diet Coke, Fanta and Sprite were also produced in Dunkirk, France. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Coke Ethical Issues" essay for you Create order Children at six schools in Belgium had complained of headache, nausea, vomiting and shivering which ultimately led to hospitalization after drinking CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s beverages. Most of them reported an unusual odor and an off-taste in the drink. In a statement to Reuters, Marc Pattin, a spokesman for the Belgian Health Ministry explained the seriousness of the issue: Another 44 children had become ill with stomach pains, 42 of them at a school in Lochristi, near Ghent, northwest Belgium. We have had five or six cases of poisoning of young people who had stomach pain after drinking (the suspect beverages). In the same week, the governments of France, Spain and Luxembourg also banned CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s products while CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s Dutch arm recalled all products that had come from its Belgium plant. The entire episode left more than 200 Belgians and French, mostly school children, ill after drinking the Coke produced at Antwerp and Dunkirk. The company had to assure its British customers that the products made in its UK factories were safe. By June 15, 1999, Coke had recalled about 30 million cans and bottles, the largest ever product recall in its 113-year history. For the first time, the entire inventory of CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s products from one country were banned from sale. As part of a damage control exercise, Coke sent a team of scientists to Europe. During its visit to Europe after a week of these incidents, CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s chairman and CEO Michael Douglas Ivester said, We deeply regret any problems encountered by our European consumers in the past few days. Coke Belgium even announced that it would reimburse the medical costs for people who had become ill after consuming its products. The recall had a significant negative impact on Cokes financial performance with its second-quarter net income coming down by 21% to $942 million. Moreover, the entire operation cost Coke $103m (66m) while its European bottling venture showed a 5% fall in revenues. Analysts felt that the Belgium recall was one of the worst public relations problems in Cokes history. One analyst alleged that the company had information about people who had become ill weeks prior to the above incidents. Coke had an opportunity to disclose this information but it did not do so. He blamed Coke for being unethical in not disclosing the information, The instinct is to pull information in, and that is almost always wrong. The right move is to focus on the health of the customer. Even though you donÃ¢â¬â¢t think this information is relevant, you should get it out because that allows people who might think it is relevant to go through whatever process they want to go through. Coke might have done a lot more than it did in the opening days of the crisis. Another issue, which worried analysts, was the illness caused to the innocent school children. They blamed Cokes promotion strategy to sell soft drinks to school children which had raised lot of controversies in the US. _______________________________  Coca-Cola, based in Atlanta, US, is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest soft drinks company.  These soft drinks were bottled by CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s bottlers which were not owned directly by the parent company.  Thomas Donaldson, professor of legal studies at Wharton and Director of the Wharton Ethics Program, in an interview with [emailprotected] BACKGROUND NOTE Dr. John Pemberton, an Atlanta-based pharmacist, developed the original formula of Coke in 1886. It was based on a combination of oils, extracts from coca leaves (cola nut) and various other additives. The ingredients were refined to create a refreshing carbonated soda. PembertonÃ¢â¬â¢s bookkeeper, Frank Robinson, suggested that the product be named Coca-Cola. He even developed a way of lettering Coca-Cola in a distinctively flowing script. On May 8, 1886, Coke went on sale for the first time in the Joe Jacobs Drug Store. The first Coke advertisement appeared in The Atlanta Journal on May 29, 1886. Pemberton, with modest help from several investors, spent $73. 6 on advertising, but was able to sell only 50 gallons of syrup at $1 per gallon. The product slowly gained acceptance after a heavy outpouring of free sample drinks. In 1888, after PembertonÃ¢â¬â¢s death, Asa Candler, PembertonÃ¢â¬â¢s friend and a wholesaler druggist purchased a stake in the company. Coke sales soared even without much advertising and as many as 61,000 servings (8 ounces) was sold during 1889. Sensi ng the potential of the business, Candler decided to wind up his drug business and be associated with the Coke full time. As the business expanded, Candler also increased the advertising outlay. By 1891, Candler had complete control of Coke for $2,300. In 1892, Candler formed The Coca-Cola Company and, a year later, registered Coca-Cola as a trademark. Only Candler and associate Robinson knew the formula. It was then passed on by word of mouth and became known as the most closely guarded secret in the American industry. Despite occasional rumors, company sources maintained that cocaine was not an ingredient in CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s formula. By 1895, Coke was sold in all parts of the US, primarily through distributors and fountain owners. When it was first launched, Coke had been advertised as a drink, which relieved mental and physical exhaustion, and cured headache. Later, Candler and Robinson repositioned Coke as a refreshment drink. In the beginning of the 20th century, corporations in the US drew flak for promoting adulterated products and resorting to misleading advertising. Coke was an ideal target for such attacks. The US government passed the Pure Food and Drugs Act in June 1906. A case was registered against Coke and the trial, which opened in March 1911, attracted widespread attention. Coke, eventually, won the case. The decision, however, was reversed in the Supreme Court. Finally, the case was settled out of court in 1917 with Coke agreeing to reduce the caffeine content by 50%. In 1919, Coke was sold to an investment group headed by Ernest Woodruff for $25 million $10 million in cash and $15 million in preferred stock. WoodruffÃ¢â¬â¢s major decision after taking over was the establishment of a Foreign Department to make Coke popular overseas. While expanding in foreign markets, Coke faced several problems. Initially, it had to rely on local bottlers who did not promote the product aggressively, or on wealthy entrepreneurs who were unfamiliar with the beverages business. The company also faced problems regarding government regulations, trademarks registration, languages, and culture. By 1927, CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s sales climbed to nearly 23 million gallons. Even though Pepsi Cola emerged as a major competitor to Coke in the 1930s, Coke continued to do well and flourished during the war. By the time the US entered the Second World War, Coke was over fifty years old and well established. In 1962, Paul Austin (Austin) became CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s tenth president and four years later, became the chairman and CEO of the company. One of AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s first initiatives was the launch of a diet drink. By 1965, soft drink sales in the US had risen to the level of 200 drinks per capita and CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s market share had risen to 41% against PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s 24%. In 1964, Coke also acquired a coffee business. The company developed drinks with new flavors and also targeted food chains, which were fast gaining popularity. In the 1970s, Coke faced stiff competition from Pepsi. PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising budget exceeded that of Coke. In 1978, figures also revealed that Pepsi had beaten Coke in terms of supermarket sales with its dominance of the vending machine and fountain outlets. Coke also faced problems in the 1970s when the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ruled that saccharin, an important ingredient in Coke, was harmful and a potential source of cancer. CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance continued to decline in the late 1970s as Austin led the company into new businesses such as shrimp farming, water projects and viniculture. The political and social unrest in countries like Iran, Nicaragua and Guatemala also affected CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s poor performance and the increasing discontent among its employees, led to AustinÃ¢â¬â¢s exit and the nomination of Roberto Goizueta, a 48-year-old chemical engineer, as the new CEO in 1980. Goizueta quickly concluded that the obsession with market share was doing little good to the company, and in certain businesses, the Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) was actually less than the cost of capital. Goizueta drafted a strategic statement, which made it clear that the company had to earn profits at a rate substantially in excess of inflation, in order to give shareholders an above average return on their investment. He sold the non-performing businesses such as wine, coffee, tea, industrial water treatment, and aquaculture. Coke faced a major scare in 1993, when the markets reacted violently and the stocks of big companies, including Coke, tumbled. The event popularly referred to as Marlboro Friday, involved a drastic price cut by Philip Morris in response to price undercutting by private cigarette brands. Coke stock fell by about 10% in the weeks following Marlboro Friday. Coke executives embarked upon a major public relations exercise to undo the damage. They stressed that brands were more profitable than private labels at retail stores and that branded soft drinks were far less vulnerable than branded cigarettes. In mid-1998, health experts and CCFPE in the US criticized Coke for targeting school children through exclusive contracts. The controversy intensified further when a district administrator of Coke in Colorado Springs, Colorado, sent a memo to all the school principals in the district. The memo asked the principals to encourage the sale of Coke products because the district risked failing to meet its contractual obligation to sell at least 70,000 cases of Coke products. Falling short of target would significantly reduce payments from Coke to these schools over the next seven years. Several newspapers and journals, including Denver Post, HarperÃ¢â¬â¢s Magazine, The Washington Post (Post), and The New York Times criticized the memo. EXCLUSIVE SCHOOL CONTRACTS The exclusive school contracts allowed Coke exclusive rights to sell its products soda, juices, and bottled water in all the public schools of a district. Under the plan, the schools got $350,000 as an up front money and a percentage which ranged from 50 percent to 65 percent of total sales. The exclusive contract with Coke represented one of the fastest growing areas of commercialism of schoolhouses (Exhibit I). According to the Center for Commercial-Free Public Education (CCFPE) in April 1998, there were 46 exclusive contracts between school districts and soft drink bottlers in 16 states in the US. By July 1999, it increased to 150 contracts across 29 states. Critics said that these contracts represented the growing trend of commercialization on school campuses. When students saw products advertised in their schools, they frequently thought that it was something that the schools were endorsing. By displaying its logos prominently in public schools, Coke hoped to re-establish brand loyalty and brand recognition. A study found that the average American teenager could identify some 1,000 corporate logos, but could not name even ten plants and animals in the area where he or she lived. Parents were concerned about the proliferation of logos on school scoreboards, walls, buses and textbooks. Some groups opposed the commercialization in schools saying that it was unethical, immoral and exploitative. They criticized the education community for encouraging commercialization in schools. Alex Molnar, Professor of Education, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee said, It is an erosion in our culture between what is public and what is private. It represents a subversion of the idea that the school is for the public welfare. Health experts expressed concerns about the increase in consumption of soft drinks by young people consume, and the consequent harm to their health (Exhibit II). In less than 30 years, the annual consumption of soda per person had more than doubled from 22. 4 gallons in 1970 to 56. 1 gallons in 1998 . The Post reported that CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s exclusive contract with the District of ColumbiaÃ¢â¬â¢s public schools allowed for nearly twice as many beverage vending machines in high schools, middle schools and elementary schools as were there before the contract. In a Post article, Andrew Hagelshaw of the CCFPE said, What we have seen in just about every exclusive contract around the country is a resulting increase in the amount of soda consumed by students ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s almost always an increase in the number of vending machines and they are put into schools that previously didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have them. Another report titled Liquid Candy said that compared to 20 years ago, the teenagers today drank twice as much soda as milk. According to Colleen Dermody, communication director, Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) Vending machines in schools created a preference for soda over milk, juice, and water. In 1994-96, CSPIÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis of teenagers between the age of 12 and 19 showed that about 5 percent of male soft drink consumers drank at least 19 ounces per day and 5 percent of female consumers drank at least 12 ounces per day (Exhibit III). Richard Troiano said that the data on soda consumption suggested a link with childhood obesity. According to Troiano, overweight children tend to consume more calories from soda than those who were not. Childhood obesity rates in the US had increased by 100 percent in the past 20 years. Studies had also shown the negative effect of caffeine on children, an additive present in most of the cola drinks. Analysts concluded that soft drink makers were encouraging teenagers to consumer more drinks, which would cause serious health problems for a whole generation. Another analyst suggested, If the schools must have vending machines, they should concentrate on healthy choices, like bottled water. However, the exclusive contracts put pressure on schools to increase the number of vending machines to increase sales of soft drinks. Post reported that prior to signing an exclusive contract with Coke, few schools had vending machines. After signing the contract, most high schools had four machines, middle schools had three, and elementary schools one. Another study said that in the last 20 years in the US, school enrolment had increased 6. percent, while participation in school meal programs had surprisingly declined by 1. 2 percent. One major factor was that vending machines filled mostly with junk food competed with school meal programs. The school meal program provided nutritious meals for nearly 27 million children in US schools. The US government had allocated $5. 46 billion in 1999 for the school meal programs. A traditional school meal included two ounces of protein, three-fourths cup of fruit and vegetables, approximately two servings of grain products and a half-a-pint of milk. In 2000, the American Federation of Teachers denounced the sale of competitive foods, calling them detrimental to students health and development of sound eating habits. The Seattle Education Association adopted similar resolutions against commercialization in SeattleÃ¢â¬â¢s public schools. By mid-2001, 240 district schools in 31 states had entered into an exclusive contracts with Coke. According to the National Soft Drinks Association (NSDA), sixty percent of all public and private middle schools and high schools sold soda in the US. The NSDA challenged the information presented by health advocates, calling it an insult to consumer intelligence. They said that any attempt to link soft drinks to health problems was not supported by facts. According to the association, no direct connection had been established between increased soda consumption and obesity. THE EXPLANATION While Coke faced a lot of criticism from health experts and public agencies for targeting school children during 1998-1999, the company received a major setback during the European crisis in which school children were the major victims. After the crisis, Coke investigated the problem by testing the suspect batches for chemicals. The company claimed that the tests showed nothing toxic in the beverages. However, to explain the whole crisis, Philippe Lenfant, general manager of Coke Belgium, said that there had been separate errors at two plants. The products from the Antwerp plant had a strange odor due as some fungicide had accidentally fallen on the exterior of the cans. In addition, Coke had determined that the strange taste was the result of a sub-standard gas used to carbonate the products. The plant in Dunkirk had some cans which had been contaminated with a wood preservative during shipping. In the last week of June 1999, the Belgium government lifted the ban on all Coke products, with the exception of Coke and Sprite. France allowed one of the two Coke plants to reopen, but the ban remained on all Coke products imported from Belgium. In late June 1999, after inconclusive tests and review of procedures by Coke and European health inspectors, Belgium and France lifted the ban on Coke completely. By the end of June 1999, the second French plant was back in business. In a letter to shareholders dated July 12, 1999, almost a month after the incidents, Ivester said that there was never a problem with the actual Coke products. The letter said, In the space of a few days, our system experienced two very limited quality problems at bottling/canning plants in Belgium and France. At no point was any health hazard present in our products. However, these problems resulted in an off taste and off smell of products and packages, and some consumers reported feeling ill after drinking our beverages. Any quality issue, of course, is unacceptable. Nothing is more important to us than the integrity of our products, and I have apologized to our consumers for any discomfort or inconvenience. Many outstanding Coke people responded quickly to the situation, working diligently to recall the products, determine the causes and share our findings. Analysts said that Coke had not handled the situation well and its media message was confusing, inconsistent and muddled. Coke alternately claimed that pesticide residue on the can or bottle, or a bad batch of carbon dioxide, was to be blamed for the off taste. On the other hand, the company also insisted that there was never any health threat. A company spokesman assured consumers, It may make you feel sick, but it is not harmful. In August 1999, the European Commission reprimanded Coke, asserting that the company had not cooperated adequately and its explanations were not entirely satisfactory. It also suggested that while Coke blamed suppliers outside its sphere of influence, One cannot exclude that errors were committed in the selection of plants or the dosage of extracts in CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s own concentrate. While no deaths were linked to the Coke problems, it had a significant negative impact on the public confidence in Europe. QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION: 1. What ethical issues did Coke face during the European crisis? Do you think Coke handled the situation in the right manner? 2. Examine the ethical issues involved in the Coke-District Schools exclusive contract deals. What measures must Coke and the schools take to minimize the negative impact of its products on students health? 3. What measures should the government have taken to solve the exclusive school contracts controversy and minimize the negative impact of soft drinks on children? EXHIBIT I SEVEN CATEGORIES OF SCHOOLHOUSE COMMERCIALISM |The Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Education had identified seven categories of commercial activities in schools: | | | |Sponsorship of Programs and Activities: Corporations pay for or subsidize school events and/or one-time activities in return for the | |right to associate their names with these activities. | | | | |Exclusive Agreements: Schools agree to give corporations exclusive rights to sell and promote their goods and/or their services in a | |school or district. In return, the school or district receives a percentage of the profits derived from the arrangement. Exclusive | |agreements may also entail granting a corporation the right to be the sole supplier of a product or service. | | | |Incentive Programs: These are corporate programs that provide money, goods, or services to a school or district when students, | |parents, or staff engage in a specified activity, such as collecting product labels or cash register receipts. | | |Appropriation of Space: Corporations pay for the right to place corporate logos and/or advertising messages on school scoreboards, | |rooftops, bulletin boards, walls, and book covers | | | |Sponsored Educational Materials: These are instructional materials supplied to schools by corporations and/or trade associations. | | |Electronic Marketing: Corporations provide electronic programming and/or equipment in return for the right to advertise online to | |students, families, or community members. | | | |Privatization: The management of schools or school programs by private for-profit corporations or other non-pu blic organizations. | Source: Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Education. EXHIBIT II HEALTH IMPACT OF SOFT DRINKS Soft drinks pose health risks because they contain sugar and various additives and they replace beverages and foods | |that provide essential vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients in the diet. Some of the ill effects of soft drinks are: | |OBESITY | |Obesity increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and causes severe social and psychological problems. Soft drinks | |add unnecessary, non-nutritious calories to the diet that may lead to obesity. They provide more calories to overweight youths than to| |normal youths. Obesity rates have risen in tandem with softdrink consumption and higher consumption of soda pop leads to higher | |calorie intakes. | |BONES AND OSTEOPOROSIS | | | |People who drink soft drinks instead of milk or other dairy products are likely to have lower calcium intakes. Low calcium intake | |contributes to osteoporosis, a disease leading to fragile and broken bones . The risk of osteoporosis depends in part on how much | |bone mass is built early in life. Girls build 92% of their bone mass by the age of 18 and hence must consume enough calcium in | |their teenage years. According to a study, teenage girls in the US are consuming only 60% of the recommended amount of calcium, with | |soft-drink drinkers consuming almost one-fifth less than non-consumers  . While osteoporosis takes decades to develop, preliminary| |research suggests that drinking soda pop instead of milk can contribute to broken bones in children. | |TOOTH DECAY | |Refined sugar is one of the several important factors that cause tooth decay (dental caries). Regular soft drinks cause decay because | |they bathe the teeth of frequent consumers in sugar-water for long periods of time during the day. A study found a strong correlation | |between the frequency of between-meal consumption of soda pop and dental caries . To prevent tooth decay, even the Canadian Soft | |Drink Association recommends limiting between-meal snacking of sugary and starchy foods, avoiding prolonged sugar levels in the mouth,| |and eating sugary foods and beverages with meals. Unfortunately, many heavy consumers of soft drinks do not follow these rules. |HEART DISEASE | |Heart diseases occur due to high cholesterol diets; smoking and a sedentary lifestyle. In addition, a diet high in sugar may also | |cause heart problems. High-sugar diets may contribute to heart disease in people who are ? insulin resistant.? An estimated one-fourth | |of adults who take high sugar diets have high levels of triglycerides and low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol in their blood. T he | |high triglyceride levels are associated with a higher risk of heart disease . |KIDNEY STONES | |Kidney (urinary) stones are one of the most painful and one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. A study suggested a | |link between soft drinks and kidney stones. Researchers conducted an intervention trial . The trial involved 1,009 men who had had| |kidney stones and drank at least 5 1/3 ounces of soda pop every day. Half the men were asked to refrain from drinking pop, while the | |others were not asked. Over the next three years, drinkers who reduced their consumption (to less than half their customary levels) | |were almost one-third less likely to experience recurrence of kidney stones. | |ADDITIVES: PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG, ALLERGENS, AND MORE | |Several additives in soft drinks have raised health concerns. Caffeine, a mildly addictive stimulant drug, is present in most cola | |drinks, as well as in some orange sodas and other products. Caffeine? s addictive quality may be one reason why six of the seven most | |popular soft drinks contain caffeine . Caffeine increases the excretion of calcium in urine. Drinking 12 ounces of a | |caffeine-containing soft drink causes the loss of about 20 milligrams of calcium. That loss, along with the relatively low calcium | |intake in girls who are heavy consumers of soda pop, may increase the risk of osteoporosis. Caffeine can cause nervousness, | |irritability, sleeplessness, and rapid heart beat  . It makes children restless and fidgety and causes headaches. Caffeine? s | |addictive quality may keep people hooked on soft drinks (or other caffeine-containing beverages). |Several additives used in soft drinks can cause occasional allergic reactions. Yellow 5 dye causes asthma, hives, and a runny nose. A | |natural red coloring, cochineal (and its close relative carmine) may cause life-threatening reactions. Dyes can cause hyperactivity in| |sensitive children. In diet sodas artificial are more harmful. Saccharin, which has been replaced by aspartame in all but a few | |brands, has been li nked in human studies to urinary-bladder. Several cancer experts have questioned the safety of acesulfame-K, which | |was approved in 1998 for use in soft drinks. Source: Liquid Candy, Center for Science in the Public Interest. EXHIBIT III RISING CONSUMPTION OF SOFT DRINKS Carbonated soft drinks account for more than 27 percent of Americans beverage consumption. In 1997, Americans spent over $54 billion to buy 14 billion gallons of soft drinks. That is equivalent to more than 576 12-ounce servings per year or 1. 6 12-ounce cans per day for every man, woman, and child. That is also more than twice the amount produced in 1974. Artificially sweetened diet sodas account for 24% of sales, up from 8. 6% in 1970. Table I Consumption of non-diet soft drinks by 12- to 19-year-olds (ounces per day) and percentage case of calorie intakes (all | |figures include non-drinkers) | |Year |Ã Ounces per day |Ã |Ã Percentage of calories |Ã | |Ã |Ã Boys |Girls |Ã Boys |Girls | |1977-7 8 |Ã 7 |Ã 6 |Ã 3 |Ã 4 | |1987-88 |Ã 12 |Ã 7 |Ã 6 |Ã 5 | |1994-96 |Ã 19 |Ã 12 |Ã 9 |Ã 8 | Source: The US Dept of Agricultural Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78; Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 1987-88, 1994-96. Children start drinking soda pop at a remarkably young age, and consumption increases through adulthood. 20% of one and two-year-old children consume soft drinks. These toddlers drink an average of seven ounces (nearly one cup) per day. Toddlers consumption changed little between the late 1970s and mid-1990s. Table II Consumption of Regular and Diet Soft Drinks by 12 to 19-year-olds | |(excludes non-drinkers) | |Year |Ã Ounces per day |Ã Ounces per day | |Ã |Ã Boys |Ã Girls | |1977-78 |Ã 16 |Ã 15 | |1987-88 |Ã 23 |Ã 18 | |1994-96 |Ã 28 |Ã 21 | Source: The US Dept of Agricultural Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1977-78; Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 1987-88, 1994-96. ADDITIONAL RE ADINGS REFERENCES: 1. OCA Joins Nader Organization to Ban Junk Food in Schools, www. organicconsumers. org, August 19, 1997. 2. Sullum, Jacob, Caffeine Fiends, Creators Syndicate, April 29, 1998. 3. Jacobson, Michael F. , Liquid Candy, www. cspinet. org, 1998. 4. Kaufman, Marc, Fighting the Cola Wars in Schools, The Washington Post, March 23, 1999. 5. Belgium widens Coke recall as more children fall ill, Reuters News, June 14, 1999. 6. Bates, Stephen, Coke is banned after safety scare, The Guardian, June 16, 1999. 7. Belgian Ban on Coke Products Reduced; Cokes Reputation Damaged, www. bevnet. com, June 17, 1999. 8. Echikson, William; Baker, Stephen and Foust, Dean, Things Aren? Going Better with Coke, BusinessWeek, June 28, 1999. 9. Coke Explains Belgium Crisis to Shareholders, Reuters News, July 12, 1999. 10. Whelan, Elizabeth M. Why Belgium Waffles About the Safety of Coke, American Council on Science and Health, July 1999. 11. Molnar, Alex, Looking for Funds in All the Wrong Places, www. asu. edu, Apri l 2000. 12. Currinder, Marian, Coke Thirsts for Business in Florida Schools, www. opensecrets. org, April 2000. 13. Bryce, Robert, Marketing Wars Enter Schoolyard, The Christian Science Monitor, July 2000. 14. Abrams, David, Schools ordered to turn off vending machines during day, www. gazette. com, August 01, 2001.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Government espionage has been a natural part of the competition between countries. America like every other country had its own intelligence system, but it was not unit Edward SnowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s leak of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s surveillance program that the world saw the elaborate and extensive program running worldwide. Edward SnowdenÃ¢â¬â¢s leak of NSA Surveillance Programs not only destroyed years of Government planning and espionage, but also tarnished the reputation of the American government, damaged relationships with allies, and allowed terrorists to regain an edge in the cyber-battleground of the War on Terror. The September attacks on 9/11 sparked terror in America, the losses were devastating and the country laid in shock. The worst laid in the fact that the attacks could have been prevented. Al Qaeda took advantage of and exploited the United States lack of technology. Terrorist used online messaging to communicate and plan the attack with one another. If America had a surveillance program in place, the correspondence between terrorists could have been noted and the attacks prevented. In order to say in the know of terrorist activities, America had to spy on Al Qaeda, old fashioned human intelligence would not have been practical or very likely to succeed. With human intelligence, a believable identity had to be created, Ã¢â¬Å"they may have to pretend to be wealthy donors [or other radical fighters]Ã¢â¬ ¦ [,] overcome significant cultural barrierÃ¢â¬ ¦ [and work through a] significant language barrierÃ¢â¬ Show MoreRelatedJapanese Canadian Internment During The Beginning Of Wwii1911 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesfearful that they would lose their dominance due to competition in industries such as fishing, farming, markets and even in education. The Canadian Government created laws stating that Japanese Canadians were not allowed to vote, they also had fishing and farming permits denied, which were supposed to motivate them to move back to Japan. On top of that, White people also feared that Japan would attempt to expand into Canada and take itÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resources due to JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s expansionist policies thatRead MoreCyber Security and Cyber Weapons3827 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"SecuringÃ aÃ computerÃ systemÃ hasÃ traditionallyÃ beenÃ aÃ battleÃ ofÃ wits:Ã theÃ penetratorÃ triesÃ toÃ find theÃ holes,Ã andÃ theÃ designerÃ triesÃ toÃ closeÃ them.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã ~Gosser WarfareÃ hasÃ alwaysÃ beenÃ aÃ gameÃ ofÃ catÃ andÃ mouse.Ã AsÃ technologyÃ increasesÃ warÃ hasÃ toÃ adapt withÃ it.Ã WarsÃ haveÃ evolvedÃ fromÃ aÃ contestÃ ofÃ strengthÃ toÃ aÃ showÃ ofÃ potential.Ã PreviouslyÃ warsÃ were foughtÃ withÃ largeÃ armiesÃ andÃ whomeverÃ couldÃ mostÃ effectivelyÃ utilizeÃ theÃ mostÃ troopsÃ withÃ better trainingÃ won;Ã nowÃ however,Ã aÃ singleÃ personÃ withÃ aÃ nuclearÃ bombÃ canÃ destroyÃ aÃ cityÃ withinÃ secondsRead MoreRussia And The Russian Federation Essay1844 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Russia, known by most as the Russian Federation, is a federal state in Eurasia. 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Sell the old product in foreign markets Read MoreRole of Ngos in National Development and Security4510 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesCoaltion of NGOs, Nigeria email: email@example.com INTRODUCTION: The term NGO has now become a popular in academic, policy and international cycles. The letters N.G.O is an abbreviation, which stands for Non-Governmental Organization, literally speaking because they are not formed by the government, not controlled by Government bureaucracy and they do not participate in decision or policy making of Government(s). SOME HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES For a better understanding of the present topicRead MoreAn Introduction to the Law and Economics of Intellectual Property12472 Words Ã |Ã 50 Pagesauthors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writing and discoveries. Under this general grant, the Congress has enacted a number of statutes, including the Copyright Act [17 U.S.C.A. Sec. 101-810], the Patent Act [35 U.S.C.A. Sec. 1-376], and the Semiconductor Chip Protection Act of 1984 [17 U.S.C.A. Sec. 901-914]. In addition, the federal government has enacted the Trademark Act of 1946 (Lanham Act) as amended [15 U.S.C.A. Sec. 1051-1127] and there is state law regulation ofRead MoreAccounting12656 Words Ã |Ã 51 PagesChapter 2Ã¢â¬âThe External Environment: Opportunities, Threats, Industry Competition, and Competitor Analysis TRUE/FALSE 1. The health-related concerns in the general environment facing Philip Morris International are part of the physical segment. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Medium REF: 36 OBJ: 02-01 TYPE: comprehension NOT: AACSB: Ethical Legal understanding | Management: Ethical Responsibilities | Dierdorff Rubin: Managing the task environment 2. The external environment facing business stays relatively
Free will vs. determinism is an argument as complex, intertwined, and co-dependent as nature vs. nurture or the age-old question of whether it was the chicken or the egg that came first. Philosophers have contemplated the question for ages, and arrived at no satisfactory answer. While considering which topic to address for this assignment, I posed the question of free will vs. determinism to a philosopher friend, whose response was Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t care.Ã¢â¬ He feels that the question is not worth asking because it will not impact our actions anyway. Which ultimately makes him somewhat of a determinist I suppose, though IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure he would disapprove of being classified as such. In the end, I settled on the topic of free will vs. determinismÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Perhaps this is true, but it seems quite unsatisfying. Determinism, on the other hand, does offer consolation in times of disappointment. You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get the job you wanted? Unrequited love? Disfigured for life by a random act of violence? Something better will come along. The Universe has a different plan for you. It was GodÃ¢â¬â¢s will. In the end though, these platitudes are no more satisfying than the idea that we are completely free. If everything we do is predetermined, then where is the incentive to reflect on ones actions, learn from mistakes, or take initiative? What difference will it make if we prepare well for the interview - if we are the Ã¢â¬Ëright fitÃ¢â¬â¢ for the organization, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll get the job. Our soul mate, if it is our destiny to have one, will find us. It is in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan that Dr. PhilÃ¢â¬â¢s sister-in-law is disfigured for life, and it is not our place to question His will. If our behavior is determined by a compilation of preexisting circumstances beginning with birth, as Skinner (text, pg. 153) and Freud (text, pg. 158) argue, then nothing we do can change the outcome of a situation, and our behavior in any given situation is a product of every situation we have found ourselves in previously. Determinism is certainly comforting, especially when one does not want to take responsibilityShow MoreRelatedFree Will vs Determinism627 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTed Honderich Determinism Vs Free Will Psychology 101-1322 Professor: James Pattison By: Belinda Bielicki July 2, 2011 Determinism versus Free Will: The most important and the oldest philosophical question is perhaps that of free will and determinism. Do people have free will, or are our actions pre-determined? Ted Honderich defined determinism as the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessaryRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1089 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Determinism vs. Free will The belief that all events have causes and if there ever is an equivalent origin, the same outcome will occur is called determinism. Almost meaning that every event is certain and that there really isnÃ¢â¬â¢t such thing as Ã¢â¬Å"free willÃ¢â¬ . We have the debut of free will, it is an unmitigated appearance that simply holds that there is a case about anything that happens in the near future, nevertheless how it comes about. Which leads to the question, do we have free will? OrRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism879 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFree Will vs. Determinism What determines and influences human behavior? Humans have been looking the answer for this question during several eras, thus they developed various theories attempting to explain human behavior. Determinism is the belief that one event is the consequence of a previous action, similar to a chain. According to some philosophers who support determinism, the will of an agent follows physical laws, and every action is explicable and predictable by physical conditions. By thisRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesotherÃ¢â¬â¢s throats: Free will versus determinism. Scientist believe they have proven that free will is a mere illusion. Philosophers think other wise. With many experiments and arguments included, both have a different view about this topic. One who believes that all thing, including human behavior, are already determined are people who believe in determinism. Others who believe in free will, believe that our actions are caused by free will and are no t controlled. Believing in free will means that peopleÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreFree Will And Determinism Vs. Determinism1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesFree Will and Determinism For something to occur in this world, there must be the course and the reason for the occurrence, and which will then affect other future consequences. The theory of determinism states that all events whether moral choices or vices are predetermined by other existing courses. In the same connection, the free will of humans is connected to determinism since humans do things the best way, or they cannot act otherwise. According to Saul McLeod, Ã¢â¬Å"the determinist approach proposesRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeterminism is a doctrine suggesting that for every event there exist conditions that could cause no alternative event. Free will is a philosophical term describing a particular sort of capacity of rational agents to choose a course of action from among various alternatives. Understandably, the dichotomy between these two concepts is a topic philosophers have debated over for many years. As a result of these debates, a number of alternative philos ophical perspectives arguing for the existence ofRead MoreFree Will vs. Determinism Essay1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfierce-looking meatloaf, so you decide to go with pizza. So was your decision based off of free will or was this decision predetermined? To fully understand whether your actions resulted from free will or determinism, we must first define each. Determinism is the idea that everything happens due to a cause or a determinant, which is something that can be observed or measured. To put it simply, determinism does not mean that the future can be predicted. Rather, it is a prediction of the possible outcomesRead MoreFree Will Vs. Determinism1349 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesquestions regarding free will and determinism. Free will is a human value that has inspired many individuals throughout history. These concepts of free will and determinism have inspired many poets, spiritualist, philosophers, and activist. There have been numerous philosophers who believe free will is a part o f our human nature, and are continually questioning the concept of free will, constantly attempting to understand its true meaning. In contrast to free will, there is determinism, which seems toRead MoreDeterminism Vs. Free Will893 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe future is already determined is known in philosophy as determinism.Ã There are various definitions of determinism available; but in this essay, I shall use the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy definition, which is Ã¢â¬Ëthe metaphysical thesis that the facts of the past, in conjunction with the laws of nature, entail every truth about the future This idea presents a difficult problem for the concept of free will:Ã how can we make free choices if all our actions are determined by the facts of theRead MoreFree Will vs Determinism Essay1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPHIL 110 Essay #2 February 15, 2010 GTF: Emma Jones Free Will vs. Determinism The argument of whether we humans are pre determined to turn out how we are and act the way we do or if we are our own decision makers and have the freedom to choose our paths in life is a long-standing controversy. The ideas of Sartre, Freud, and Darwin are each strong in their own manner, yet Sartre presents the best and most realistic argument as to how we choose our path; we are in control of the things we do and
A Rose Of The South Essay A Rose of the SouthWilliam Faulkners style of writing chronological events out of order is unique, but eventually the story comes together to make sense.I will attempt to analyze the story Arose for Emily in its actual chronological order. The story really begins with the passing of Emilys father.For days Miss Emily refused to believe that her father was dead,until she finally broke down to have her father buried.After her fathers death, Colonel SartorisexemptsMiss Emily from paying taxes for as long as she lives.Colonel Sartoris said this was the debt the city owed to her father. Approximately one year after Miss Emilys father died, she bagan to see a man named Homer Baron.Miss Emily was from the Old South1 and Homer was from the North.It was unheard of for a southern and a northern to be together.People began to say Poor Emily, as she would be seen on Sunday afternoons driving in the yellowed-wheeled buggy and the matched team of bays from the livery stable2.The ladies in the town thought that this was a disgrace and called a meeting to have the minister talk to Miss Emily.After this attempt did not work, the ministers wife called Miss Emilys cousins to come visit Miss Emily. When Miss Emily s cousins arrived, people thought that her cousins had convinced her to get married, sinceMiss Emily had ordered a complete out fit of mens clothing, including a nightshirt3.Mean while Miss Emily had gone to see the druggist for some poison.She never told the druggist what the poison was for, though he assumed that it was for rats. A few days after her cousins had left, Homer was seen coming into the Miss Emilys house.Neither one of them would be seen for quite some time afterwards.When Miss Emily was finally seenagain, the towns people assumed that Homer had left; not realizing that she had killed him so that she could be with him life. A short time later the town began to complain of the smell coming from Miss Emilys house.They had no idea what the smell was really from, and just wanted to order her to clean it.Four men eventually went into her cellar with cleaning products and cleaned the cellar.The towns people thought she was making a statement that she was the Old South, and was not going to give in to the new ways. It was approximately 1920 and Miss Emily was about 50 years old when the people decided that it was time for Miss Emily to pay taxes.They sent her letters, but she would not acknowledge them.When they finally approached her at her house she would just repeat to them See Colonel Sartoris. I have no taxes.4The years would go on and no one would see much of Miss Emily until they finally found her dead in one of her rooms on a walnut bed.At her funeral the old men wore Confederate uniforms and the ladies showed up with curiosity to see Miss Emily; The last of the Old South. After the funeral, they went to visit her house and discovered the mans body lying on the bed upstairs with herindented head marks on the pillow next to his body.Every one had realized what she had done to save her familys name and reputation of the Old South.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Thomas Jefferson was very aware of the contradiction between slavery and the ideas he, along with others, expressed in the Declaration. It was twice that he mentioned how the enslavement of African Americans goes against the most sacred rights of life and liberty. As well as, enslavement amounts to crimes committed against the Liberties of one people. Thomas Jefferson as well was born to a slave owning family and he himself owned slaves. Many people found it mysterious that Jefferson owned so many slaves but yet was o open in saying that slavery was immoral and it should be abolished.Even after admitting he was wrong; Jefferson still blamed the king for slavery and the slave trade. In the first paragraph of the draft of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson condemned the king for supporting the importation of slavery to the colonies, stating that the crown has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying hem into slavery in another hemisphere. We will write a custom essay sample on Thomas Jefferson and His Contradictions or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Still, this small section was asked to be dropped from the Declaration of Independence by the delegates from South Carolina and Georgia. Jefferson also based his charge due to the fact that several times during the 1 8th century, Virginians legislature passed a tariff made to put a stop on the importation of slaves. The lawmakers did otherwise, because the colony slave population was expanding rapidly and importing too many Africans would lower the price of domestic slaves whom Virginia planters wanted to sell.