Friday, December 28, 2018

Freakonomics Crime and Abortion Essay

Mohammed 2 egalized stillbirth would have been 50% more likely than average to live in poverty. This statistic that researchers nonice reinforced the belief that if a adult female did not want to have a shaver because of personal reasons or because she was not ready and if there was an stillbirth ban, the child would most likely grow up in a poor kinsfolk and have a higher essay of engaging in criminal exercise at one time they reached adulthood. It is reasoned that because stillbirth was legalized 20 years before, an entire generation of children with a higher risk of becoming criminals were not born and thats why the offensive rate dropped.The fallacy that is apparent when attempting to apologise a iniquity drop with an abortion increase is that the two are alone correlated and not necessarily causal. The authors repel that claim by providing evidence that there is a link between abortion and umbrage. Sure enough, the states with the highest abortion rates in the 1970s experienced the greatest crime drops in the 1990s, while states with lower abortion rates experienced smaller crime drops (4). The evidence regarding state data is handsome compelling especially when put in the framework of post-Roe v.Wade and the generational flutter that follows the Supreme Court decision. Although there seems to be a link between abortion and the crime rate, it all comes down to how a persons own beliefs go forth influence them to interpret the data. Conclusions can be drawn to support different viewpoints and once the moral implications of abortion are taken into consideration, then it no longer becomes a logical argument. Works Cited Levitt, Steven D. Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics. New York, harper Collins, 2005.

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Certainty and Doubt\r'

' induction is a welcome feeling to pee-pee. We often times blast these feelings for granted and do not realise that nothing in the valet is a hundred percent certain. M any(prenominal) ar convinced that matter of course allows one to get hold of dreams and desires; but this is untrue. Many do not pick out that just because almostthing has not been turn up wrong, does not mean it is necessarily true. The comprehension to prepare a certain measuring stick of enquiry regarding everything is truly a approving to remove. Doubt allows us to make discoveries and motivates us to achieve with child(p)ness, while certainty keister on courage complacency.However, with both, a soul fundament uncover an excess standard of money of greatness within oneself. Through inquisitive of the accepted logic of society, many have risen to greatness by uncovering in the past. doubting Thomas Edison, Alexander graham Bell, and Christopher Columbus atomic number 18 all pioneers that conduct the world to new-sprung(prenominal) discoveries on distinguishable frontiers. From the creation of the electric arc bulb and the telephone, to the discovery of the new world, these well-known men of activity had begun their journey based on their man-to-man querys.Due to their enquirys, these men were able to make such(prenominal)(prenominal) breakthroughs that they changed the whole world. Without the doubt of the general knowledge of the time, these men would have descended to something less than what they are given credit for today. Although, having too much doubt mess fleet to mistrust, a soulfulness who completely lacks in doubt is considered extremely gullible. In order to vacate credulousness, you must have an amount of doubt on specific subject. Within in high spirits school, there are many lies and rumors string out throughout the savant body.To avoid gullibility in this particular environment, one must start by searching for the truth. Having doubts on the rumors that are spread throughout the student body can reveal what is the truth. On the other hand, acquiring an excessive amount of doubt can lead to distrust and misunderstandings amongst one’s peers. Doubt can oftentimes be just as polluting to the mind as gullibility. Being suspicious could lead to stress-related health problems such as paranoia and anxiety.We oftentimes do not realize the depth of seriousness of stress that doubt could lead to and we tend to brush it extraneous without giving it recognition. Just like doubt, some certainty in moderation contributes to quietude of mind, just as doubt would. Certainty itself is birthed from doubt. It is from ones doubts that a soul gains their individual certainty. Without doubt, certainty would never be reached. Many had doubted Thomas Edison when he had attempted to invent the light bulb. It is because that Edison had doubted their beliefs that he had certainty within his own.It was because of this jun to of doubt and certainty that Edison was able to get on the discovery of the light bulb. Having one without the other, it would have been nearly impossible for most leaps and leap in any field of discovery. However, by having both, a person can have the motivation to explore the unknown world. By having doubt in another’s ideals can give a person purpose to search for another explanation. And by having certainty in one’s own beliefs, due to doubt, a person has the self-confidence to make the steps demand to achieve their goal.A balance of both could lead to plethora potential in any area of ideals and concepts. To achieve one’s goals, it is certain that doubt is a major(ip) contribution to success. Having doubt is a great motivator to acquire, but an abundant amount could lead to paranoia and anxiety. Being certain on a specific subject can lead to peace of mind, but it overly can prevent society world from feeling the need to make new discoveries. Both of these states of mind are take to truly unlock one’s own potential and imagination.\r\n'

Friday, December 21, 2018


'What be the happen upon commercialise placeing altercates facing Gauri Nanda and how would you order them? 1) Timing Clocky got a lot of media financial aid approximately a year other(a) from commercialization. The hype it is having faculty entertain a negative and positive affect towards when real Gauri introduce the harvest to the merchandise. The questions raised was â€Å"Would consumers enkindle in buying Clocky now be frustrated once they learned that the increase was not yet commercially available, or would they be content to wait until Clocky reached the grocery? ” 2) station marketGauri vex to decide whether to revolve almost on â€Å"Fun” or â€Å" sine qua non” localise segment. This is a critical touchstone in the using as it forget be difficult to change intuition of a intersection once it brightens a certain re setation. 3) Production confederateship Gauri obtain to make a decision whether to assistant with a large-scale retailer (Wal-Mart) or to pursue co-branding opportunities with a w atomic number 18 growing come to the forefit ( iRobot). Both ways fissure it’s up and down sides. With a large scale retailer, Gauri face the fortune of the ingathering becoming a fad, manage Tickle-Me-Elmo.On the other hand, pursuing co-brading opportunities, she competency have got less control over the merchandise invention. 4) Pricing Gauri have to decide the equipment casualty for the crossway. This also get place cast the harvest-festival dodge adopted. Selling to Wal Mart allows Gauri to notes in betimes but sacrificing the hanker term potential of the harvest-time. Whereas selling to a upper class store allows Gauri to come on brand image but it whitethorn take massiveer time to drive enough profit to recoup stomach the investment. Gauri carrys to tackle the disputes from 1 to 4.I tactual sensation that the early media attendance issue charter to be taken care of offse t and make sure it does not negatively affected the commercialization of the crossing. Secondly, Gauri needs to teach the train segment which testament soften to produceion partnership decision and in the end pricing. How would you segment the market for Clocky and on which target market segment(s) should Nanda digest. Explain the value advise for each? In the article it is mentioned that Clocky’s customer can be chuck into two camps: â€Å" command” and â€Å"Fun” market. ) â€Å" motivation” market The main customer would be people who found getting out of bed is a serious challenge and disrupted their life in remarkable ways, such(prenominal) as frequently fashioning them late for work. I flavor corresponding Clocky leave behind be a mastery in this market as it will be turn mostn a solution for those people. In addition to that, the market is currently untapped and Gauri will enjoy root travel advantage. The downside is that th e market is not as heavy(a) as the other segment. Although the probability of achiever is high, the financial actualize might not be probative. ) â€Å"Fun” market The customer would be people who currently employment an consternation time. I can suck that Clocky will be marketed not a solution but as election to tradition scandalize quantify that has more than(prenominal) advance feature. This way there is a find that the product will be seen as a fad product just akin Furby. However, the market is extensive and financial watch is significant if the product is a winner. Personally I pure tone the best strategy is for Gauri to focus on piteous term financial hand and focus on the â€Å"fun” market.There is a full-grown chance that the product might have a before long life, uniform furby but Gauri would be able to raise a significant financial do in a short intent of time. The need market is not precise attractive to me beca occasion of the si ze of the market. Based on what you believe to be the most viable/most valuable positioning, what are the rudimentary components of a marketing launch image including:  product design/features, pricing, retail conduct and distribution invention, manufacturing location, and marketing communications. My goal with this product would be to chip in as over a great deal profit as possible in the shortest amount of time.I do not designate planting a brand and egest years on this product is expenditure the effort from financial perspective. With this in mind, the strategy that I would adopt is a short term strategy that will maximise short term profit. The segment I would be targeting is the â€Å"Fun” market. I would market Clocky as an advanced apprehension clock that is innovative and â€Å"fun” to have. The feature would be kept at the minimal ( locomote consternation clock) and the design would be as pull lynchpin in the case â€Å"lighthearted feature s, such as his furry exterior and frisky nature, depicting him almost as a robotic household pet. I would form a partnership with print and use them as the main distribution channel. The pricing would be set a low tailor around $30 (considering that traditional alarm clock sold around $15). With Target’s mark up around 144%, the retail expenditure would be $40. The manufacturing location will be in China as it prolongs the lowest hail of manufacturing. Assuming the court of goods is $15, this will state 100% margin. The media communication used would be TV and magazine advertisement. The advertisement is catered toward public audience that buy alarm clock.\r\nClocky\r\nWhat are the key marketing challenges facing Gauri Nanda and how would you prioritise them? 1) Timing Clocky got a lot of media attention approximately a year early from commercialization. The hype it is having might have a negative and positive affect towards when in reality Gauri introduce the produ ct to the market. The questions raised was â€Å"Would consumers fire in buying Clocky now be frustrated once they learned that the product was not yet commercially available, or would they be content to wait until Clocky reached the market? ” 2) Target marketGauri have to decide whether to focus on â€Å"Fun” or â€Å" destiny” target segment. This is a critical shade in the development as it will be difficult to change light of a product once it gains a certain reputation. 3) Production partnership Gauri have to make a decision whether to partner with a large-scale retailer (Wal-Mart) or to pursue co-branding opportunities with a product development outfit ( iRobot). Both ways brook it’s up and down sides. With a large scale retailer, Gauri face the risk of the product becoming a fad, ilk Tickle-Me-Elmo.On the other hand, pursuing co-brading opportunities, she might have less control over the product invention. 4) Pricing Gauri have to decide the p rice for the product. This also will determine the product strategy adopted. Selling to Wal Mart allows Gauri to interchange in early but sacrificing the long term potential of the product. Whereas selling to a upper class store allows Gauri to build brand image but it may take longer time to generate enough profit to recoup back the investment. Gauri needs to tackle the challenges from 1 to 4.I look that the early media attention issue need to be taken care of first and make sure it does not negatively affected the commercialization of the product. Secondly, Gauri needs to determine the target segment which will ensue to production partnership decision and lastly pricing. How would you segment the market for Clocky and on which target market segment(s) should Nanda focus. Explain the value proposal of marriage for each? In the article it is mentioned that Clocky’s customer can be put into two camps: â€Å"Need” and â€Å"Fun” market. ) â€Å"Need” ma rket The main customer would be people who found getting out of bed is a serious challenge and disrupted their life in significant ways, such as frequently do them late for work. I feel the like Clocky will be a succeeder in this market as it will be seen a solution for those people. In addition to that, the market is currently untapped and Gauri will enjoy first moving advantage. The downside is that the market is not as big as the other segment. Although the probability of success is high, the financial gain might not be significant. ) â€Å"Fun” market The customer would be people who currently use an alarm clock. I can see that Clocky will be marketed not a solution but as alternate to tradition alarm clock that has more advance feature. This way there is a risk that the product will be seen as a fad product just like Furby. However, the market is great and financial gain is significant if the product is a success. Personally I feel the best strategy is for Gauri to focus on short term financial gain and focus on the â€Å"fun” market.There is a big chance that the product might have a short life, like furby but Gauri would be able to gain a significant financial gain in a short consummation of time. The need market is not real attractive to me because of the size of the market. Based on what you believe to be the most operable/most valuable positioning, what are the key components of a marketing launch plan including:  product design/features, pricing, retail impart and distribution plan, manufacturing location, and marketing communications. My goal with this product would be to generate as much profit as possible in the shortest amount of time.I do not hold building a brand and shake off years on this product is cost the effort from financial perspective. With this in mind, the strategy that I would adopt is a short term strategy that will maximize short term profit. The segment I would be targeting is the â€Å"Fun” ma rket. I would market Clocky as an advanced alarm clock that is innovative and â€Å"fun” to have. The feature would be kept at the minimal (moving alarm clock) and the design would be as expound in the case â€Å"lighthearted features, such as his furry exterior and devilish nature, depicting him almost as a robotic household pet. I would form a partnership with Target and use them as the main distribution channel. The pricing would be set a low draw a bead on around $30 (considering that traditional alarm clock sold around $15). With Target’s mark up around 144%, the retail price would be $40. The manufacturing location will be in China as it offers the lowest cost of manufacturing. Assuming the cost of goods is $15, this will offer 100% margin. The media communication used would be TV and magazine advertisement. The advertisement is catered toward oecumenical audience that buy alarm clock.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Why Was Swanwick Station the busiest station in England for a few weeks each year in the 1930’s, and why did this cease to be the case?\r'

'The strawberry mark mark pains was the farming and dissemination of the finest strawberries in Hampshire. In this project I give explain wherefore Swanwick property was the busiest in England in the 1930s. I pull up stakes also explain why the strawberry persistence developed and declined, and how these events changed life near the bea. This ara I will be researching is Swanwick, Locks heathland, Warsash and Ticthfield. I will do this by visiting individually of these sites and taking photographs. I will also be tone for places that have some significance to the industry such as Swanwick direct, or honest-to- right(a)ness pubs etc. I am hoping to arrive out more(prenominal) about the strawberry industry in the 1930s, and I will hope to find out why the industry built up so fast, but declined just as fast.\r\nThe settle now\r\nToday, the site has clues as to how classic the industry was. For example, MOJ Engineering is a twist which used to be a basketball ho op factory, at the top of Duncan Road in Swanwick. At the bottom of Duncan Road is Swanwick Station, a two platform train mail operating into Southampton, Portsmouth and capital of the United Kingdom. The Q8 petrol station and the pub/restaurant The Talisman is in set Gate, off the A27. Opposite Brookfield School in Sarisbury is a thoroughf be called Strawberry knoll. This is a dead end road, but has dent new traffic lights for the main road at the bottom of the hill. The Joseph Paxton pub and the off-licence â€Å"Threshers” in Park Gate are both relevant to this study.\r\nPhotos from the Site Today\r\nThis is a photo of MOJ Engineering. The faded penning on the wall reads â€Å"Swanwick and District basketball hoop factory.”\r\nThis is the outside of Swanwick Station today.\r\nThe Talisman at Park Gate\r\nThe Village inn; used to be the inn for railway commuters.\r\nThe Site As It Was and How The Industry authentic\r\nThe site was completely different to w hat it is today, as it has endured many changes. In 1872, the strawberry industry picked up, and soon there were many growers crossways Swanwick, Warsash and Park Gate. They were mainly situated in the well known strawberry fields. As the industry developed, Swanwick train station was built. It was realised in 1888 and had the job of send outing the strawberries to London and divers(a) other places. Wicker baskets to hold the strawberries were transported in from Winchester Jail made by prisoners. and in 1913 the Swanwick and District Basket Factory was established adjacent to the station. It released light and photogenic plastic punnets. A successful appease was critical for the industry and at advance moments during the growing period, prayers were offered for fair weather and a healthy crop as this was the growers hardly source for income.\r\nDuring the season †usually middle June to mid July -the take started as earliest as 4am for the 10am trains to places suc h as Aberdeen, Glasgow and Dublin. Because picking was hard, thirsty work, the local off-licence would come forth a firkin of beer (about 9 gallons) anyday to each field throughout the season. The workers would receive a glass after 1000 baskets of strawberries had been picked. The output from the area was known in the treat as â€Å"Southamptons” and was soon recognised as been of a superior quality to that of competitors in Cornwall. The first variety of berry pornographic in the area was known as the â€Å"Maud” and was about the size of a thimble.\r\n subsequently came the â€Å"Joey” or â€Å"Paxtons”, short for Sir Joseph Paxton who was the producer of this strain, existence much larger then the â€Å"Maud” and was considered by many experts to be the most dainty berry ever grown. Later servicemen from the long War returned to look for jobs, and found strawberry growing to be the most suitable, as it would earn them sufficient amounts to support a family for the whole of the year. During the season, Swanwick was over-flowing with the horses and carts which transported the strawberries from the fields to the station.\r\nStrawberry Hill was a road in which they traveled by, as you can tell by the name. â€Å"It was recorded by some mean that in the 1928 season 1,287,925 baskets left Swanwick station for London to take advantage of the mercantile markets there.” Much of the crop was grown for London markets, whose salesmen spoke highly of the local harvesting. â€Å"Up to sixty pair-horse wagons were needed to convey the fruit from Waterloo to the markets.)\r\nThe land around the area was finished for growing strawberries, but only strawberries as it didnt have the right nutrients for other crops, which is a reason why the industry developed, as they had no competition. The availability of pickers was immense, as gypsies would use up the area as pickers for the picking range of a penny farthing per 4 shell chip basket or 6 pence per hour. Whole families would work up to 18 hours per day. This was good for the industry as it meant more work could be done prompt meaning more income.\r\nPhotos from The Site As It Was\r\nWhy did the Industry Decline?\r\nThe choppy savage of strawberry growing was a success but it was in 1913 that a new variety of berry was to instal disastrous to the growers. The â€Å"Madame La Fevebre” was favoured and was for several old age known as a good cropper. However it was this variety that brought the deadly affection â€Å"root †rot” to the area. As a consequence, crops were badly hit and this coupled with the clinical depression led to many growers going bankrupt. started to dilapidate in the 1930s. One of the main reasons was that the humans was basically exhausted. Growers had used the land to the goal that it would no longer yield the crops. The Depression, tardy frosts in 1938 and finally the outbreak of strugglefar e hastened the decline of the industry in the 30s.\r\nThe survivors from the war realised that there were better jobs on offer, and didnt return to growing strawberries. There was a lot of competition from foreigners as well, as their crops ripened earlier and were sold cheaper. This was a problem for local growers as with this competition, they werent get the money they needed to support their families. round this time (30s/early 40s) air transport was growth, so England was experiencing foreign strawberries. The growth of supermarkets kinda of small fruit markets meant they needed â€Å" better” strawberries, and with all the problems in the area, the standards declined. Along with the underdeveloped supermarkets, the land originally used for crops was macrocosm increased to build houses on.\r\nBy the 1940s the wind was general produce such as potatoes and tomatoes (for the rationing during the war.) However this growth of produce continued after the war and competed against strawberry growers. 1949 was particularly bad for them as Nurseries were developing all round the district with extensive areas under glass. â€Å"Locks Heath Nurseries” boasted the largest greenhouse in Hampshire given over to the cultivation of tomatoes.\r\nTo fold…\r\nLooking back to the 40 boom years or so from the 1870s Locks Heath has been established all because of their strawberries. Nowadays they are associated with the recent phenomenon of â€Å"pick your own.” There are few memories left from this time, such as the station, and the basket factory etc, but the seasonal worker frenzied activity which included every citizen of Locks Heath, young and old, every year are now long since over.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Week One Journal\r'

'Week 1 Journal Alicia Campbell COM 320 March-Eleventh, 2013 Sheila Yarbrough Week One Journal This is the start of a long expedition in learning to enhance my interper watchwordal conversation dexteritys. I make love there is such(prenominal) in store to learn and I plan to diseng grow full advantage of the ideas to swear bug out me succeed. There be cosmosy elements in the converse realm and I never would have thought that they fit someplace in my aliveness; however, I intentional contrastingly. I experience source-receiver e rattling day when I chew out(a) to my preserve about his day at attain or just playing with my boys.Encoding-decoding is through with(p) cursory as well when I instruct my four-year-old to end up a task and I go to bed when he completes it, he has decoded what I instructed him to do. I experience competence all day as well in the form of communication I use with my husband vs. my children. When I put myself to suckher to go out becaus e I un overturnableness to look presentable to differents, I am giving them the message that I cathexis about how I look because I want to make a favourable first impression. When I am on Facebook daily; I am channeling my friends and family when I post messages for them to designate.Context comes in my free fourth dimension, when I have a chance to glimpse through and through a magazine; I will nearly likely read c over articles than any of the others. This is a physical dimension of context. My youngest son realizes the Dr. monthly, and she uses doctor jargon, which is rocky to comprehend which is a form of noise. I wise to(p) ethics from a very young age; I was taught to respect my elders, talk politely, and listen. I ensure all these elements incorporate in my life some offices I will conduce them into account more(prenominal) often.By taking the quiz in chapter one, I learned I do not know some(prenominal) about my inter psycheal communication skills. I did not r ealize that all of the answers were supposed to be chimerical because I answered some true. Most of these statements were generally delusive; however because each of these statements is a learned skill because you be not born a equal communicator. Therefore, I plan to practice ways to ameliorate my communication skills with people from different walks of life. One social occasion I did not realize is that quality matters over quantity in the amount of communication skills with others.Because I do not have much swelled interaction throughout the day (stay-at-home mom), I search to choose my run-in wisely when I do have adult interaction. In the context of the situation, I need to recollect to adjust my communication type. I just experienced this the other day when my son came to me crying because he got hurt; I got devour to his level and told him everything was going to be all even off versus laughing at him. This also goes along the lines when communication with peopl e of different cultures; people with different backgrounds pass judgment different meanings to a message.I experience this first sink when I was employed, I had to choose what I discussed and how to choose my words c befully because women from different ethnic backgrounds were employees that may render the topic of discussion more to heart. I know I am a soul who tries to avoid meeting new people if I hind end help it; I am a very shy person. However, I am getting cleanse at this quality. I am the one that waits for the other person to talk; I reply back. Practicing this worship will help regardless. Another point to remember is to keep from avoiding conflict.Every once in a temporary hookup some type of conflict is healthy for a relationship. I do not see this, though, because I have so worldly concerny people that severalize me this since my husband and I rarely argue. Personally, I do not see how conflict is healthy for a relationship. Even though I communicate with peop le verbally and nonverbally daily, I did not know the true definition of interpersonal communication and what it entailed. I think it is important to study interpersonal communication because I will need use these skills for the correspondence of my life and studying it will only help me get better at the qualities I am not so good at.Once I get better at communicating in different situations and with different types of people, I will come crossways more professional at job interviews and preserve to people more utilely. Looking back at how I have communicated with people in the prehistorical and what I have come to just shows that the earthly concern moves at a much faster whole tone than once was. One area I believe to alter on is this, I used to compose hand-written earns to my husband; however, time is changing so now all I do is Skype or e-mail when he deploys.I still need to be thankful though that he has the opportunity for this; however, it would be nice to get a letter every once in a while. It just seems life has us moving in fast forrard these days. So, I hope to get as much from this class as possible. The areas I need to improve on are all of them from what I see. I want to learn how to communicate more professionally with people of higher stature because I eternally get nervous, which makes me sound like I am not confident when on the other hand I want to communicate at an effective level.In general, I want to become a more confident speaker and lessen my fear of utter with new people. I plan on drenching up all the information this course throws my way and use it to my advantage. Interpersonal communication is part of everyone’s daily lives. I am going to take in every idea this course has to bring home the bacon and my communication skills should get better as time progresses and make me a more confident person in all aspects of life. These girls look like they are sharing secrets and the girl with the shocked facial pat tern shows me that she is receiving the message from the source.This human beings is using his messaging skills because he is video display he knows how to make a good first impression. Man and woman experiencing conflict and man trying to block her out by holding up his hand which shows me he is refusing to listen to anything she has to say. This is a form of psychological noise. This woman is receiving a hand-written letter via mail (the medium), which is a form of channeling. I see this photo as a form of encoding-decoding. The parents are reading the book to the boy and he is showing that he understands what is read (decoding) by laughing.When this woman chooses to read a topic from the front cover that caught her eye, she is showing an example of context in the physical dimension. These deuce women are doing a form of gossiping, which goes against an individual’s ethical standard. The patient is conversing with the doctor in a way that aligns with her competence. Thi s means she is adjusting her communication style because of the person she is talking to. References Alo Mukerji. (2010). [Photograph of two woman what looks like gossiping]. Retrieved from http://blog. compete. com/2010/11/01/the-latest-gossip-on-a-site-about-gossip-tmz/ Bridal Guide. 2012). [Photograph of woman getting her hair done while reading a bridal magazine]. Retrieved from http://www. bridalguide. com/blogs/bridal-buzz/david-tutera-bridal-guide-cover-shoot schoolroom Tales. (2010). [Photograph of parents reading little boy a book, and he is laughing] Retrieved from http://classroomtales. com/2010/10/09/580/ Digital Den. (2011). [Photograph of two girls one whisper to the other]. Retrieved from http://thedigitalden. files. wordpress. com/2011/10/bigstock_secrets_910281. jpg P. Nannini. (2013). [Photograph of woman getting letter out of a mailbox].Retrieved from http://providencepcc. org/awesome-things-getting-a-handwritten-letter-in-the-mail/ Regrounding. (2011). [Photogr aph of female patient talking to doctor]. Retrieved from http://regrounding. wordpress. com/2011/07/06/the-arts-of-doctoring-and-patient-ing/ Younglifeperception. (2012). [Photograph of man in suit reaching out to stir up some ones hand]. Retrieved from http://younglifeperception. wordpress. com Younglifeperception. (2012). [Photograph of man and woman fighting; man putting up his hand to block her out]. Retrieved from http://younglifeperception. files. wordpress. com\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Child Development – Case Study\r'

'Child Development †consequence studies Mrs Roberts is returning to work after maternity leave. forthwith she has an appointment with a local nursery as she requires full meter care for herds grass who is six-spot months old. Mrs Roberts is extremely anxious as Timothy is her premier born and she is feeling guilty about returning to work and leaving him in barbariancare. How leave behind you pick up that Mrs Roberts and timothy are quietend? apologise the mundane nursery routines to Mrs Roberts such as play sessions, toilet, and food.\r\n declare her the Policy & Procedures booklet and ask questions about Timothy †likes, dislikes, special requirements. Be reassuring and understanding with understand to her apprehensions and explain that good communication between the nursery, parents and child are essential. Maybe suggest that she could stay for a while in the first few sessions to reassure her about how Timothy is handling the transition. How could thei r slur tint practice? You must be wary of the early(a) children at the nursery †how may they react to a parent staying?\r\nSet a length of magazine that she could stay and suggest for only 3 sessions initially. tout ensemble Staff must be made aware of the situation and confidentiality be adhered to. To solar day is Bethany’s first day at pre- drill. Bethany who is an only child has be for short spells with her mother which went well. Bethany has woke up this morning with a tummy ache, her mother suspects it is related to passing to pre- school and reassures her daughter. When Bethany arrives at pre- school she becomes in truth clingy to still and when mum goes to leave she starts to cry and gets upset.\r\nHow allow for you deal with the situation? Reassure mum and Bethany. Be friendly and ingest the child in funny conversation and/or involve them in play. Identify her favourite matter to do †distraction point. How go forth you reassure mum? Explain to mum that ‘Bethany will be ok’ and if there are any problems they will contact her. How will you reassure Bethany? Explain that ‘She will claver mummy later’, show her the clock/time line and show when mummy will be back. Introduce her to some other children †meet a friend and distract with play, keep her busy.\r\nRosie and Jim are 4 year old tally today they will be staring primary school, the twins will be doing mornings for a week before going all day, their parents pass on decided to split the twins at school so that they can give out as individuals. The twins wake up very excited about going to school which pleases their parents, as yet when they arrive at school they become stir up and upset when they realise that they are in variant classes. How are you going to reassure the twins? Explain to them the day’s routine and show them a time line, pointing out when the twins will be together †break times, story time, end of day.\r\ n progress them to meet new people and play with contrastive things. How are you going to reassure the parents? Explain to them the day’s routine and tell them when the twins will be together †break times etcetera undertake that the parents are given positive feedback. What contingence plan could you have in place? Ensure that the twins will be together at least once a day. Show both twins where the other one is †classroom. Put a ‘buddy’ with them both †so they always have someone. Worst case †put them in the comparable class! by Jo Quinn\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'How is sociology important in your family Essay\r'

'John J. Macionis explains the vastness of sociology in family in the thirteenth chapter, ‘Family and Religion’ of his record ‘Society, The Basics’. When the analysis is d oneness on micro- direct we keep an eye on that individuals get formed up and learn a lot with the experience of family bearing. Members of the family especially children human body aflame bonds, become intimate with one an opposite(prenominal) and above all ar taught about their elaboration and values. Family gives an ideal picture of marriage and it is seen that matured individuals in United States find great pleasure in upbringing their ingest children.\r\nThe structural functional greet of importance of family for society at macro level according to Macionis is, The family performs vital tasks, including heartyizing the young and providing stirred up and functional support for members. The family helps regulate sexual activity. The companionable conflict approach is, The family perpetuates social inequality by handing down wealth from one generation to the next. The family supports patriarchate as salubrious as racial and social inequality.\r\nThe symbolic interaction approach is, The reality of family life is constructed by members in their interaction. Courtship typically brings together people who offer the same level of advantages. (Society, The Basics, Chapter Thirteen, Family and Religion, Page- 24) Macionis explains how is sociology primal to your family and family is also equally important to the society. In fact, describing the primary concepts of the family, Macionis explains that\r\nFamily- a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care the bearing and raising of children. (Society, The Basics, Chapter Thirteen, Family and Religion, Page- 2) As there prolong been development and changes in the society, family structure as well as cultural norms have also changed and modified. at that p lace have been both pros and cons of the development and they need to be understood in order to prevent the vileness effects of progress on society and families as well.\r\nThe family performs a lot of duties, which includes mainly of providing material and emotional security to its members and socialization. Due to increase in break dictates and broken families these duties are not whole performed. Society depends upon families in some(prenominal) aspects and family on the other hand plays a role in social classification based on values and ethics. Macionis writes that any marriage consists of two dissimilar relationships in which one is that of men and the other of women.\r\nThe expectations and anticipations of both the genders are dissimilar but marriage stays on the pillars of vernacular understanding. People’s thinking have changed regarding having babies through new technologies of reproduction which help reduce the rate of birth defects and also help those cou ples have their own children who suffer with some deficiency or so. at that place has been stress on the importance of religion on society and individuals and level depicts that there have been many social reform movements that have been promoted due to religiosity.\r\nIt is believed that bam of industrial revolution was because of religious principles and doctrine of Calvinism. in that location have been lots of problems and transitions in family life because history portrays women as property of men and domestic delirium as a private concern and these concepts are changing with time. These are the points of discussion and detailed tuition found in this chapter, ‘Family and Religion’ from the book, ‘Society, The Basics’ by Macionis that I appreciate and like the most.\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Poverty, Hunger Prevent Filipino Kids From Getting Basic Education\r'

'Twelve- category-old Marian ( non her real name) is unmatched of the gazillions of Filipino children whose foster be on has taken a backseat pay fit to p all told overty. The fifth of eight children, she fled her home when she was 10 beca spend she say her jobless parents hurt her. Marian is supposed to be in the sixth grade this year, but she’s currently enrolled as a Grade 1 pupil, scholarship fundamental language lessons and math skills in a public bare(a) civilise in Cainta, Rizal. A certain â€Å"Ate Rowena” took her in and convinced(p) her to go back to crop.Marian has to face ch t divulge ensembleenges in school. â€Å"Marami pong nanlalait sa ‘kin dahil Grade 1 ako pero malaki ako…hindi ko pinapakinggan yun kasi ito na po yung simula para maipagpatuloy ko po yung pag-aaral ko at makatapos po ako (Other children tease me beca phthisis I’m still in Grade 1…but I don’t drumhead them because this is my chance to wait and finish my studies),” she say. Despite the ch allenges, Marian is lucky compare to thousands of otherwise Filipino children. 1 turn up of 6 kids not in schoolOne out of six school-age Filipino children is not enrolled, figures from the De get downment of genteelness (DepEd) and the field Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) revealed. The lowest adfairment proportion (NER) or participation local anaestheticize at the elementary level for school year 2006-2007 was 83. 2 per centum, d receive by 1. 2 partage points from the anterior school year and a further crab from school year 1999-2000’s 96. 95 percent. The NER is the ratio surrounded by the assumejustment in the school-age c axerophtholaign and the summate population of that age range.That means that out of all Filipino children aged 6-11â€which is the official age range for elementary pupilsâ€17. 8 percent or intimately adept-fifth are out of school. DepEd figures also convey that fro m 1999 to 2007 participation in elementary bringing up descendd, surrender for a 0. 19-percentage point increase in 2002. The rate of participation in secondary schooling is plane worse. From 2002 to 2007, intimately half or 43. 7 of all Filipinos aged 12-15â€the official age range for uplifted schoolâ€failed to enroll. This is lower than the participation rate of 65. 43 percent in 1999-2000.With these figures the province is still utmost from achieving the Millennium charge kitchen-gardening of providing basal accept to all, the NSCB verbalise in its piece of music. The Philippines is also far from achieving its own reproduction for All 2015 Plan, which serves as the blueprint for the state of matter’s basic learning. Disparity among regions It is not just the overall figures that reflect that the country is unable to follow international and national goals for pedagogics. Government data channelise that there is a good disparity in education figures among regions, with most of conflict-ridden Mindanao trailing behind urban centers.The study scotch and increase Authority in its 2006 Socio frugal Report ascertained that despite a 0. 38 percent increase in the enrollment of children in 2006 compared to 2005, the figure is lower than expected. NEDA’s figures portray that 12. 91 million of the 19. 25 million children enrolled in 2006 are elementary pupils while 6. 33 million were in high school. The overall figure is around high than that of the previous year by but 72,969 children. â€Å"An assessment of the situation points to indigence as the principal(prenominal) cause of thislower-than-expected increase. This is further exacerbated by the high constitute of schooling-related expenditures. High school educatees look toing employment to sum up family income also contributed to the low increase in enrollment,” the NEDA report stated. The Department of nurture admitted that the country’s à ¢â‚¬Å" mercurial economic situation” is preventing children from going to school. Even with the â€Å" nought tuition” offer of the political relation, s canistert(p) families are hindered by lack of employment, longing and malnutrition, among other problems.â€Å" cadence and a collide with parents cause complained of pecuniary obstacles,” said Ken looth Tirado, intercourses ships officer of DepEd. Poverty to blame Poverty is one of the old(prenominal) causes of the country’s poor education go into and has affected participation in education in to a great extent shipway than one, according to â€Å" fostering abide Preliminary Report: Education Deprivation in the Philippines,” a study done by vanadium advocacy convocations including E-Net Philippines, Asian South Pacific chest of Adult Education, Action for Economic Re take a leaks, Popular Education for People’s Empowerment, and Oxfam.Citing data from the National Statistic s blank space 2003 Functional Literacy, Education, and Mass Media Survey, the study said the backsheesh reason of multitude aged 6-24 for not go to school is employment or â€Å"looking for work,” with almost one-third or 30. 5 percent citing that reason. wish of personal pertain came in second at 22 percent, while the high cost of education came in a close third at 19. 9 percent. Other reasons take, among others, housekeeping, illness or dis exponent, hardship to cope with school work, and outstrip from school.â€Å"The lack of engross among school children indicates a weakness on the part of the school transcription to operate education evoke for the students. This may be due to poor instruction quality, inadequate facilities and supplies and poor infrastructure. Poverty, surface-disposed exclusion, school distance and poor health are, likewise, factors that weigh heavily on children and dampen their interest to pursue schooling,” said the report.â⠂¬Å"The challenge, therefore, is how to forge the school interesting and encouraging preferably than frighten; how to make it inclusive, non-discriminatory and poor-sensitive rather than exclusive and elite-oriented; and how to make it cooperative rather than restricting. Finally, the education meaning, process and experience should be made more(prenominal) centreful to the children’s spiritedness experiences by ensuring appropriate, culture-sensitive and judges-based interventions,” it added. Increase in reckon does not helpGovernment figures presentation that the budget for education has increase over a 10-year plosive speech sound †from P90 cardinal in 1999 to P149 million in 2008. It does not include the P4 billion acquired in 2007 from the private sector, a dramatic increase from 2003’s P400 million aft(prenominal) Education secretaire Jesli Lapus re-launched the Adopt-A-School curriculum in 2006. Despite the budget increase, government agencies respectd a gradual decline in the net participation rate of students in the past baseball club years, especially in the regions.Luzon has the highest NER, followed by Visayas, with NERs on the antonym side of the spectrum, and Mindanao with the lowest percentage of school-age children going to school. The National Capital arena and Region IV alternately topped the NERs for elementary education, with the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon, having the highest NER from 2004 to 2006. Even NCR’s relatively high figuresâ€at least 92. 6 percent since 2002†nurse declined by about 0. 6 to 2. 2 percentage points, except in school year 2006-2007 when it increased by a meager .03 percent. Region IX or Western Mindanao posted the biggest NER decrease of 12. 1 percent, from 89. 7 percent in 2002 to 77. 6 percent in 2006. Surprisingly, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao placed 4th out of the 17 regions, with no less than 85. 8 percent net e nrollment rate. Unfortunately the trend didn’t continue until high school, where ARMM ranks lowest, consistently placing 17th with only 23. 7 percent to 35. 6 percent when it peaked in school year 2005-2006. The figures went down by 3 percentage points the next year.In school year 2006-2007 wholly 13 out of the 20 provinces with the lowest elementary NER were from Mindanao, while in secondary education 17 were from the area. â€Å"Various plans birth been realised to cater to the lagging provinces in Mindanao. DepEd has been implementing these projects with assistance from the private sector and Official teaching aid from the US Agency for external Development and the Australian Aid for International Development,” said DepEd’s Tirado.Tirado said AusAID’s Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao is seeking to meliorate the quality of and admission to basic education, while USAID’s Education Quality and main course for larnness and Liveliho od Skills focuses on targeting high illiteracy and drop-out evaluate. â€Å"These 2 projects select contributed to the success of DepEd’s education interventions in Mindanao,” Tirado said. some other project, the Strong Republic outgo Learning School, was established in 2003 â€Å"to picture disadvantaged, impoverish sectors approaching to dinner gown and non- starchy school systems.” Tirado said the 2008 usual Appropriations Act has a special provision for the social system of classrooms and school furniture and the hiring of t for each oneers in the ARMM. Peace in Mindanao sine qua noned Education advocacy group E-Net Philippines pointed out that since poor education in Mindanao mass be attributed to poverty and armed conflict, a long-term firmness of project to address its declining enrollment would be to bring repose to the area. â€Å"During armed conflicts, schools are used as refugee centers, hence disrupting classes.At the very(prenom inal) time, children and teachers suffer from trauma which prevents them from effectively schooling †or teaching, as in the case of teachers,” said E-Net’s national coordinator, Cecilia Soriano, in an email hearing with GMA hots. TV. She also said that since there is a dousing of Muslim students in Mindanao, the curriculum â€Å"should be founded on the Muslim wisdom while incorporating the core fencencies that volition provide children and youthfulness the requirement familiarity to ‘compete’ in the labor market. â€Å"The group is also craft for a budget storage allocation of P70 million for Learning Centers in indigenous communities in Davao del Sur, Agusan, and South Cotabato, where education is virtually inaccessible, as well as an allotment of P800 million for alternative learning services targeting out-of-school youth. The DepEd provided P420 million to ALS in 2006, according to its butt against 2008 Performance Report from July 1998 to March 2008. Hunger, malnutrition In a March 2008 report, the Education department said hunger and malnutrition are also barriers to participation in education.In 2007, DepEd modify its school feeding chopine, with 300 percent more beneficiaries compared to the previous year. Tirado said that to make the distribution more effective, the DepEd-Health and Nutrition Council implemented a â€Å"targeted scheme” that categorizes â€Å" precedence provinces” according to the severity of lack of food and exposure to hunger. DepEd started implementing the pabulum for School Program under the intensify Hunger Mitigation Plan during the last ninny of 2005. It was done with the Health, Social Welfare departments, the National Food Authority and local government units.A periodical ration out of a kilogram of fortified rice is accustomed as subsidy to families finished preschool and Grade 1 pupils. The program, which covered 6,304 public schools nationwide and benefited 111,584 preschool and Grade 1 children, distributed a total of 25,338 bags of rice. E-Net Philippines said the strategy is flawed. â€Å"As a motivation to go to school, it sends the wrong gist to poor children: go to school to get one kilo of rice preferably of the value of learning; it is also an added burden for children as poor parents encourage their children to attend classes to be able to avail of the daily ration,” said Soriano.Strategy for patronage Soriano said the scheme has depart a strategy for patronage as local government units select the beneficiaries of the program. â€Å"In fact in 2007, in April, when there were no classes, and just forrader the elections, the DepEd released rice to preschool and elementary and high school students,” said Soriano. â€Å"There were also problems in implementing the [strategy] which were exposed during the 2007 budget deliberations, such as alleged overpricing of rice, deficiency in deliveries and low quality o f rice,” she added. E-Net believes there are other strategies to keep poor children in school instead of giving rice.Addressing health and poverty situations that prevent access to education are among the group’s propositions. away from the Food for School program, DepEd has also proposed increased support for interventions aimed at children aged 5-11. (DepEd claimed that there were significant boosts in budget allotment to certain programs in 2006. These include the Preschool Education Program, which went up to P2 billion from P250 million, the modeltlement of inexpert prior years of teachers’ benefits, PhilHealth and GSIS premiums, which were given P1. 94 billion from nothing, and a P345 million boost in secondary Learning Services.) E-Net’s Soriano, however, said there should be â€Å"more targeted education programs for child laborers, indigenous mickle, children and youth with disabilities and self-aggrandising illite evaluate and other margin alized groups. ” Despite the odds, Education Secretary Jesli Lapus is optimistic. â€Å"The key reforms and well-focused policy directions to improve basic education are slowly but surely baby buggy fruit,” he said, adding that the Education department â€Å"has been c at a timentrating its human and financial resources on key performance indicators aimed at let on classroom instruction. â€Å"If it’s up to DepEd, the result of the National Achievement Results this year, where the mean percentage score increased from 59. 94 percent in 2007 to 64. 81 this year, the government’s Education project is a success. Whether this indicates that the country can inch its way toward achieving the 75 percent target MPS by 2010, or if the Education for All plan and the Millennium Development Goal can be met by 2015 is still to be seen. One thing is certain though, efforts at boosting education will only be futile if the poverty situation is not significantly, immed iately improved.†GMA vernals. TV http://www. gmanetwork. com/ news/story/111257/news/specialreports/poverty-hunger-prevent-filipino-kids-from-getting-basic-education Literacy is the king to conduct and create verbally. [1] The in mogul to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism. opthalmic literacy includes in accompaniment the competency to take visual forms of discourse such as body language,[2] pictures, maps, and video. Evolving definitions of literacy ofttimes include all the attribute systems relevant to a particular corporation.Literacy encompasses a complex set of abilities to understand and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture for personal and community climb uping. In a technological society, the concept of literacy is expanding to include the media and electronic school text, in addition to alphabetic and round systems. These abilities vary in diametric social and cultural place settings according to need, demand and education. The prima ry sense of literacy still toys the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from a critical interpretation of the scripted or printed text.Key to all literacy is haveing development, a progression of skills that begins with the ability to understand speak news shows and decode compose words, and culminates in the deep understanding of text. course session development involves a range of complex language underpinnings including sentiency of speech sounds (phonology), spelling patterns (orthography), word meaning (semantics), grammar (syntax) and patterns of word formation (morphology), all of which provide a necessary platform for holding fluency and comprehension.Once these skills are acquired the contributor can attain full language literacy, which includes the abilities to improvement printed material with critical compendium, inference and synthesis; to create verbally with accuracy and coherence; and to use information and insights from text as the buns fo r informed decisions and creative thought. [3] The unite Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines literacy as the â€Å"ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and compose materials associated with varying scopes.Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society. â€Å"[4] http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Literacy In the Philippines, it is assumed that out front the Spanish liquidation, the natives of the Philippine islands were universally literate that all can pack and write in their own respective languages. During the Spanish colonization of the islands, indicant materials were destroyed to a far much less extent compared to the Spanish colonization of the Americas.The Spaniards tried to rub literacy in the islands to prevent the islanders to unit e. Education and literacy was introduced only to the Peninsulares and remained a privilege until the Americans came. The Americans introduced the public schools system to the country which drove literacy rates up. face became the applauder franca in the Philippines. It was only during a brief period in the Japanese occupation of the Philippines that the Japanese were able to teach their language in the Philippines and teach the children their pen language. After World War II, the Philippines had the highest literacy rates in Asia.It nearly achieved universal literacy once again in 80s and 90s. Ever since then, the literacy rate has plummeted only to start yield a fewer percentage years back. The DepEd, CHED, and other donnish institutions encourage children to improve literacy skills and knowledge. The government has a program of literacy teaching starting in kindergarten. sassy reforms are being brought in shifting to a K-12 system which will teach children their regional la nguages before side, as opposed to the 10-years basic education program which teaches English and Filipino, the countrys two official languages, from Grade 1.Literacy in the 21st century Main article: New literacies Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan Economic cushion Many policy analysts consider literacy rates as a crucial measure of the value of a regions human capital. For congressman literate people can be more easily skilful than functionally illiterate people †and generally have a higher socio-economic status;[42] thus they enjoy break away health and employment prospects. Literacy increases job opportunities and access to higher education.Korotayev and coauthors have revealed a rather significant correlational statistics between the level of literacy in the early nineteenth century and successful modernization and economic breakthroughs in the late 20th century, as ‘literate people could be characterized by a greater innovative-activity level , which provides opportunities for modernization, development, and economic outgrowth [43] In Kerala, India, for example, female and child mortality rates declined dramatically in the 1960s, when girls schooled according to the education reforms after 1948 began to raise families.In addition to the potential for literacy to increase riches, wealth may promote literacy, through cultural norms and easier access to schools and tutoring services. [citation needed] In 2009, the National Adult Literacy agency (NALA) in Ireland commissioned a cost benefit analysis of adult literacy reading. This concluded that there were economic gains for the individuals, the companies they worked for, and the Exchequer, as well as the economy and the country as a firm †for example, increased GDP.The one-year income gain per person per level increase on the Irish ten level National Qualifications Framework was €3,810 and the annual gain to the Exchequer, in terms of reduced social welfare transfers and increased tax payments, was €1,531. [44] Broader and complementary definitions Traditionally, literacy is ability to use compose language actively and passively; one definition of literacy is the ability to â€Å"read, write, spell, be givenen, and speak. ” Since the 1980s, some have argued that literacy is ideological, which means that literacy always exists in a context, in tandem with the values associated with that context.Prior work viewed literacy as lively autonomously. around have argued that the definition of literacy should be expanded. For example, in the United States, the National Council of Teachers of English and the International Reading Association have added â€Å"visually representing”[clarification needed] to the traditional list of competencies. Similarly, in Scotland, literacy has been defined as: â€Å"The ability to read, write and use numeracy, to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and work problems, as family members, workers, citizens and lifelong learners.â€Å"[52] A basic literacy received in many a(prenominal) places is the ability to read the newspaper. Increasingly, communication in commerce and in general requires the ability to use computers and other digital technologies. Since the 1990s, when the Internet came into wide use in the United States, some have asserted that the definition of literacy should include the ability to use tools such as web browsers, word bear on programs, and text messages. Similar expanded skill sets have been called multimedia literacy, computer literacy, information literacy, and technological literacy.[53][54] both(prenominal) scholars propose the idea multiliteracies which includes Functional Literacy, Critical Literacy, and rhetorical Literacy. [55] â€Å"Arts literacy” programs exist in some places in the United States. [56] Other genres under study by academia include critical literacy, media literacy, ecolo gical literacy and health literacy[57] With the increasing emphasis on evidence-based decision making, and the use of statistical graphics and information, statistical literacy is becoming a very important aspect of literacy in general.The International Statistical Literacy Project is dedicated to the promotion of statistical literacy among all members of society. It is argued that literacy includes the cultural, political, and historical contexts of the community in which communication takes place. [58] Given that a greathearted part of the benefits of literacy can be obtained by having access to a literate person in the household, some recent literary productions in economics, starting with the work of Kaushik Basu and James Foster, distinguishes between a ‘proximate illiterate and an ‘ separate illiterate.The former refers to an illiterate person who lives in a household with literates and the last mentioned to an illiterate who lives in a household of all illitera tes. What is of concern is that many people in poor nations are not just illiterates but isolated illiterates. Greek and Roman were written languages long ago. superannuated Chinese running played candidates for government positions. German and English both became written languages in about 800 AD. commandment literacy Main article: Learning to read dogma English literacy in the United States is dominated by a focus on a set of discrete decoding skills.From this perspective, literacy †or, rather, reading †comprises a number of subskills that can be taught to students. These skill sets include phonological awareness, phonics (decoding), fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Mastering each of these subskills is necessary for students to become unspoilt readers. [59] From this same perspective, readers of alphabetic languages must understand the alphabetic principle to master basic reading skills. For this purpose a theme system is â€Å"alphabetic” if it uses symbols to represent individual language sounds,[60] though the degree of residue between earn andsounds varies between alphabetic languages. syllabic writing systems (such as Japanese kana) use a symbol to represent a single syllable, and logogrammatic writing systems (such as Chinese) use a symbol to represent a morpheme. [61] There are any number of approaches to teaching literacy; each is shaped by its informing assumptions about what literacy is[citation needed] and how it is best learned by students. Phonics instruction, for example, focuses on reading at the level of the word. [60] It teaches readers to observe and interpret the letters or groups of letters that make up words.A common method of teaching phonics is man-made phonics, in which a novice reader pronounces each individual sound and â€Å"blends” them to pronounce the whole word. [60] other approach is embedded phonics instruction, used more oft in whole language reading instruction, in which novice rea ders learn about the individual letters in words on a just-in-time, just-in-place basis that is tailored to meet each students reading and writing learning needs. [60] That is, teachers provide phonics instruction opportunistically, within the context of stories or student writing that feature many instances of a particular letter or group of letters.Embedded instruction combines letter-sound knowledge with the use of meaningful context to read new and difficult words. [62] Techniques such as directed listening and thinking activities can be used to aid children in learning how to read and reading comprehension. In a 2012 proposal, it has been claimed that reading can be acquired naturally if print is constantly functional at an early age in the same manner as spoken language. [63] If an appropriate form of written text is made available before formal schooling begins, reading should be learned inductively, emerge naturally, and with no significant negative consequences.This propos al advances knowledge and understanding because it challenges the commonly held belief that written language requires formal instruction and schooling. Its success would motley current views of literacy and schooling. Using developments in behavioral skill and technology, an interactive system (Technology Assisted Reading Acquisition, TARA) would change puppylike pre-literate children to accurately perceive and learn properties of written language by simple exposure to the written form. The broader impacts of this possibility are far clutching.The inability to read is prevalent around the world and even in American society. The cost of illiteracy as well as the huge cost of formal literacy instruction is one of the major financial burdens on societies. [citation needed] In addition, many students who are considered literate still have difficulty in comprehension which may be related to making reading instruction dependant on(p) on spoken language. By embedding the child in wri tten language, their learning to read becomes embodied in the same manner as learning spoken language.This innovative intervention would also help redirect financial resources where they will have the most impact. Although 90% of private and public education spending is on children between the ages of 6 and 19, 90% of brain growth occurs before age 6. [citation needed] Spending for nurturing children for literacy before age 6 will be a large market and will have the most impact in improving the quality of life, especially for children without cyberspace access. Public depository program library efforts to promote literacy The public library has long been a force promoting literacy in many countries.[64] In the United States, the release of the National judgment of Adult Literacy (NAAL) report in 2005 revealed that approximately 14% of adults function at the lowest level of literacy; 29% of adults function at the basic functional literacy level and cannot help their children with homework beyond the first few grades. [65] The lack of reading skills hinders adults from reaching their full potential. They faculty have difficulty getting and maintaining a job, providing for their families, or even reading a story to their children. For adults, the library baron be the only source of a literacy program.[66] United States Programs have been instituted in public libraries crosswise the United States in an attempt to improve literacy rates. Some examples are listed below. READ/Orange County, initiated in 1992 by the Orange County Public Library in California, is an example of a flourishing community literacy program. The cheek builds on what people have already learned through experience as well as education, rather than trying to make up for what has not been learned. The organization then provides the student with the skills to continue learning in the future.[66] The program operates on the basis that an adult who learns to read creates a ripple effect in th e community. An adult who learns to read impacts not just himself but the whole community: he becomes an example to his children and grandchildren, and can better serve his community. [66] The mission of READ/Orange County is to â€Å"create a more literate community by providing diversified services of the highest quality to all who seek them. ” Potential tutors train during an extensive 23-hour tutor training workshop in which they learn the philosophy, techniques and tools they will need to work with adult learns.[66] After the training, the tutors invest at least 50 hours a year to tutoring their student. Another successful literacy effort is the BoulderReads! program in Boulder, Colorado. The program recognized the difficulty that students had in obtaining child criminal maintenance while attending tutoring sessions, and joined with the University of Colorado to provide reading buddies to the children of students. Reading Buddies matches children of adult literacy stude nts with college students who meet with them once a week throughout the semester for an hour and a half.The college students receive course credit, ensuring the quality and reliability of their time. [67] for each one Reading Buddies session focuses primarily on the college student reading aloud with the child. This helps the child gain interest in restrains and feel comfortable reading aloud. Time is also spent on word games, writing letters, or searching for books in the library. Throughout the semester the tally work on writing and illustrating a book together. The college student’s grade is partly symbiotic on the completion of the book.Although Reading Buddies began primarily as an answer to the lack of child care for literacy students, it has evolved into another(prenominal) aspect of the program. [67] While the children are not participants in the tutoring program, they do show marked improvement in their reading and writing skills throughout the semester, due in p art to the admiration and respect they gain for their college reading buddy. The Hillsborough Literacy Council (HLC), operating under the Florida Literacy Coalition, a statewide organization, strives to improve the literacy ability of adults in Hillsborough County, Florida.Working since 1986, the HLC is â€Å"committed to improving literacy by empowering adults through education. â€Å"[68] The HLC also provides tutoring for English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). close to 120,000 adults in Hillsborough County are considered illiterate or read below the fourth grade level. Through person-to-person tutoring, the organization works to help adult students reach at least the fifth grade level. 95,000 adults dungeon in Hillsborough County do not speak English; volunteers in the organization typically work with dinky groups of non-English speaking students to help practice their English communication skills at any time.http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Literacy#Philippines htt p://www. cea-ace. ca/education-canada/article/educated-parents-educated-children-toward-multiple-life-cycles-education-po http://rer. sagepub. com/content/78/4/880. abstract http://literacyencyclopedia. ca/index. php? fa=items. show&topicId=251 http://www. educationspace360. com/index. php/reading-writing-education-and-the-parents-influence-20458/ http://www. hfrp. org/publications-resources/browse-our-publications/parent- intricacy-and-early-literacy http://thekristafaith. blogspot. com/2012/09/social-issue-illiteracy-in-philippines. hypertext mark-up language http://education. blurtit. com/118279/what-are-the-causes-of-illiteracy http://countrystudies. us/philippines/53. htm http://www. indexmundi. com/philippines/literacy. html http://k-12. pisd. edu/currinst/pfl/home. htm http://www2. ed. gov/pubs/OR/ResearchRpts/parlit. html http://filipinofreethinkers. org/2012/05/04/underestimating-parental-involvement/ Parental Involvement in School In this complex world, it takes more t han a good school to educate children. And it takes more than a good home. It takes these two major educational institutions working together.http://www. ncpie. org/WhatsHappening/researchJanuary2006. cfm All the supra studies (plus many more) are summarized in A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family and Community Connections on Student Achievement, by Anne T. Henderson and Karen L. Mapp (Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, 2002). http://www. edpsycinteractive. org/files/parinvol. html related literature Studies have indicated that children whose parents and/or other significant adults share in their formal education tend to do better in school.Some benefits that have been identified that measure parental involvement in education include: Higher grades and test scores Long term academic feat Positive attitudes and behavior to a greater extent successful programs More effective schools All parents want their children to become successful, compassi onate adults. Similarly, many parents want to be involved with the formal education of their children. Sometimes, however, they dont know where to start, when to find the time, or how to go about making positive connections with the school.At the most basic level, parents can begin encouraging the education of their children by showing that they truly value education themselves. backchat Question â€Å"Can you think of some ways that parents and grandparents might show their children that they value education? ” Answers might include: Enrolling in classes themselves Showing an interest in reading Taking part in study groups Talking about educational issues Paying assist to school matters Showing concern for childs progress freehanded time to the school-classroom, PTA/PTO, or library.Parent involvement is linked to childrens school readiness. Research shows that greater parent involvement in childrens learning positively affects the childs school performance, including high er academic achievement (McNeal, 1999; Scribner, Young, & Pedroza, 1999; Sui-Chu & Willms, 1996; Trusty, 1998; Yan & Lin, 2002) and greater social and emotional development (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997; Fantuzzo & McWayne, 2002). Simple interactions, such as reading to young children, may lead to greater reading knowledge and skills (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998). And, children with richer home\r\n'

Saturday, December 15, 2018

'History of Ancient Philosophy Paper Essay\r'

'Recall that at Apology 37d, â€Å"It would be a fine spirit for me, indeed, a humanity of my age, to go into exile and spend his life exchanging genius urban center for another, because he’s always being expelled (C. D. C. Reeve, P-Apology 37d)” Admittedly, Socrates could credibly have avoided death by recommending exile if he wanted to, save he chose not to do so. Then, what exactly, was in his mind? After having been sentenced to death, Socrates was sleeping in his prison cell awaiting his execution.\r\nEarly in the morning, Crito visits Socrates and attempts to twine him to operate the city out front the execution. If we look into their dialogues, Socrates suggests examining whether he should do what Crito advises or not, defining himself as â€Å"a somebody who listens to nothing within him barely the cable that on rational reflection seems best to him” (C. D. C. Reeve, P-Crito 46b). Here, Socrates seems to learn that he does not have it off anyt hing, so exit choose to do what appears to be the best to him finished examining.\r\nSocrates uses this unique method of examining throughout the books of Apology, Crito and Republic by continuously disbeliefing to figure out what seems the best. Then, the question is, what does he mean by â€Å"best” in the statement? I argue that it is neither his life nor his family, nevertheless what is and or soundice. It seems to me that Socrates’ statement at Crito 46b reflects his personal philosophy that one should examine his carry out whether it is well(p) or unsporting before acting it. According to Socrates, one should coif the bodily function that is just and should not perform if it is an dirty action subsequentlyward examining.\r\nA great example demonstrating this point disregard be found in Apology, where Socrates states â€Å"You’re not mooting straight, sir, if you think that a man who’s any use at all should evanesce any opposing we ight to the risk of vivification or dying, instead of looking to this alone whenever he does anything: whether his actions are just or unjust, the deeds of a good or frightful man (C. D. C. Reeve, P-Apology 28b). ” This transportation system clearly demonstrates Socrates’ character and personal philosophy.\r\nSocrates was a person who examines and chooses to do what is just even if the consequence of it were catastrophicâ€even death. In this passage, even in the accompaniment of his own life at stake, Socrates argues that a man who’s any use at all, or I interpret this as a acute man, should not worry about life or death, but should examine what is just before perform an action; that is, the determining factor of performing an action should be based on what is just but nothing else. It seems to me that he could have avoided death if he does not say what he does in the passage.\r\nHowever, he is the person who is persuaded by nothing within himself but t he argument that appears to be the best to him, which is justice, as he states at Crito 46b. Therefore, he chooses to do what is just at the court regardless of the consequence of it as he does so as well later after the sentence. Another great example that demonstrates Socrates’ point would be the passage at Crito 54c. In this passage, he likewise reflects his personal philosophy that one should examine himself before performing an action and should not perform it if it is an unjust action.\r\nâ€Å"…Don’t put a higher(prenominal) value on children, on life, or on anything else than on what’s just…. suppose you double back injustice for injustice and bad treatment for bad treatment in that shameful way, breaking your agreements and commitments with us and doing bad things to those whom you should least of all treat in that way… (C. D. C. Reeve, P-Crito 54c)” Once again, it seems that Socrates emphasizes that doing what is just is the highest value in life. Undauntedly loyal to his righteous principles, Socrates refuses to leave Athens because he believed that it would be not only contrary to his moral principles, but also unjust to the city.\r\nIn fact, he believed that it is just in him to awaken the sleeping city, and to urge people what is very eventful†justice. It seems clear to me that Socrates’ important concern was to examine himself before his action and perform what is just as he confesses at Crito 54d as follows: â€Å"That, Crito, my dear friend, is what I seem to hear them saying, you whitethorn be sure. ” Therefore, he listens to what seems best to him and does not escape the city. However, it is questionable to me that if it is just to follow unjust laws.\r\nI am tempted to think that it would be more just to fight for just laws than merely to follow unjust laws because when I think of the holocaust victims, I do not think of them as just people, but merely unfair victims of injustice. Despite this, I think that his faithfulness to what he believed to be just is truly admirable. In my speculative opinion, being so spirited to know the truth, Socrates, maybe and only maybe, wanted to know what it is after his death and to free his soul in best condition.\r\nOr, maybe he wanted to memorise that what he believed to be just is more important than his life. Overall, Socrates suggests that life is worth living only if one does the just actions through the philosophical process of examining himself. I find that his character is very inspiring because doing what is just regardless of its consequences takes a great deal of courage. choke Cited Reeve, C. D. C. A Plato reader: eight essential dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co. , 2012. Print.\r\n'

Thursday, December 13, 2018

'Modernization Theory and Classical Dependency Theory Essay\r'

' modernization theory is the offshoot of varying from a traditional or under wear outed companionship to a modern western United Statesern societies way of life. Basically, Modernization theory became the foundation stone of this evolutionary prescription(prenominal) for bringment. The theory is non homogeneousâ€numerous proponents disagreed on several key features. precisely in free outline, the theory focused on deficiencies in the poorer countries and speculated roughly ways to overcome these deficiencies. It viewed traditional society as a series of negatives: stagnant and unchanging, not innovative, not profit-making, not progressing, not growing. Modernization is the economic gain within societies and the third public did not support these economic or political transformations; it was ‘left bed’. So the task of the three virtually beingness is to transform itself from tradition to modernity. That is, to follow the footsteps of the Western terr a firma. In fact, be arouse the means is now charted, these countries can avoid the mistakes do by the West. On the former(a) hand, addiction is also not a homogeneous, unified theoryâ€serious uninflected differences persist within the school.\r\nEconomic growth in advanced countries created Third World pauperisation in its wake: not simply that the Third World is poor in comparison with the industrialised world; rather that it is poor because development of the industrial dodging in Western Europe and North the States changed and impoverished many societies of Asia, Africa and Latin America, by colonialism, imperialism and extractive name of trade. When capitalism began to spread, the ceaseless search for profit began: through with(predicate) the production of agricultural goods in colonies or new(prenominal) lands, and Western Europe’s ability to direct unequal bargains. This fundamentally changed the social structures of the Third World. The terminal figur e dependency comes from this link: Some say the growth of various regions for their raw materials and labour impoverished them and made them depend on the West. Others point out that in fact it is the other way around: that the West has been dependent on the Third World though history in order to be adapted to grow and prosper. Modernization theory sees capitalism as a creative force, ca use growth and progress.\r\nDependency sees international capitalism as the ruin of the Third World. Modernization sees rich countries as helpers of poor countries; dependency sees them as the main obstacle to the well-being of the poorer countries. non all of dependency theorists’ prescriptions ar anti-capitalism however: both(prenominal) see some good in using capitalism and protectionism to enhance national economies. Both theories begin point in damage on how develop these third world countries and address poverty. According to modernization perspective the causes of poverty are pa yable to geomorphologic restraints placed on the third world by European powers. It describes the structural restraints as unequal exchange. The declining â€Å"terms of trade” as the price of trades from the third world are decreasing, while prices from developed countries are increasing. This heart creates a circular trap as takings in third world countries are low, which declines the export prices, while wages in richer countries are increasing, which cause increases in the price of industrial goods. This means developing countries need to constantly increase their yields and exports for their profits to plosive the same. On the other hand, dependency perspective argues that the causes of poverty in third world countries are due to their traditional cultures and values.\r\nThese theories regard that in order to shape this problem poor countries can succeed through following the footsteps of developed countries. These would include invading other countries to. However , this is quite unachievable because we are now in modern time. In the case of the Philippines, I believe that we can achieve and become one of the develop countries. For example, iphone has a metal cover and iron to its midland body; the metal was produced through mining and exported to some countries. When it goes back it becomes iphone and it cost more expensive. In other words, the countries that produced metal and have limited technology are making those developed countries richer. Instead of exporting those products, utilised it within the country and profit more from it. inadequacy of technology is not the reason to depend in the western countries, impatient and being contented for what they have. They hold out’t think of the better things that they can have. The material essence of democracy was turned off and forgot that it is the recipe of the mob. If these theories are really applicable how come third world countries are still crapping and suffering from pover ty. But it is very applicable it’s just meet that the attitude and the thinking of the mint are different. wish what I have learned from Cuban people, people must change their way of thinking.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

'Blod Bank\r'

' birth BANK MANAGEMENT organization package necessarys Specification 3rd Feb 2013 Pre equalityed for BLOOD BANK Table of Contents Revision Historyii enrolment Approvalii 1. Introduction1 1. 1 mark1 1. 2 Scope1 1. 3 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations1 1. 4 References1 1. 5 Overview1 2. full general Description2 2. 1 w be Perspective2 2. 2 Product Functions2 2. 3 drug exploiter Characteristics2 2. 4 General Constraints2 2. 5 Assumptions and Dependencies2 3. Specific Requirements2 3. 1 External port wine Requirements3 3. 1. 1 exploiter Interfaces3 3. 1. 2 Hardwargon Interfaces3 3. 1. 3 Softwargon Interfaces3 3. 2 Functional Requirements3 . 2. 1 <Functional Requirement or Feature #1>3 3. 2. 2 <Functional Requirement or Feature #2>3 3. 5 Non-Functional Requirements4 3. 5. 1 Performance4 3. 5. 2 Reliability4 3. 5. 3 Availability4 3. 5. 4 Security4 4. Analysis Models4 4. 1 Sequence Diagrams5 4. 3 Data Flow Diagrams (DFD)5 4. 2 State-Transition Diagrams (STD)5 1. Introduction This SRS furnishs needs and proposed dissolver of the channel Bank Management corpse wasting disease in tide rip coasts. This software intersection works in a Client Server surround with the emcee storing the data and clients connecting to the work onr for completely types of legal proceeding.It leave behind conthrough the mapping and traces of the arrangement, the interfaces of the remains, what the constitution result do, the constraints under which it moldiness operate, specific requirements and other supporting data. This schedule is think for some(prenominal) the stakeholders and the developers of the strategy. This account is intended for developers, puke coordinator, project guide, exploiters and testifyers. The developer goat enforce the text file to view the summary and normal part, to en accredited requirements specification. The project coordinator lav use this muniment to review the idea of project whether it is innova tional and usable or non.The project guide can use this document to analyze and reign the hightail it of project development. The tester can use this document to get clear idea about clay, to derive the exact input domain of system and to afford respective test cases for the examen purpose. 1. 1 Purpose This Software Requirements Specification runs a complete comment of comely the functions and specifications of the Blood swear Management governing body software. The purpose of this document is to present a circumstantial description of the Blood Bank dodge. This document is useable for Blood Bank employees who use this system on the daily basis.This document exit similarly serve as a reference to incorporate both deepens made in the system to the future. It volition in any case prove to be useful to the managerial staff which is responsible for the smooth functioning of the counter deeds that are exerciseed on daily basis. This document is chiefly intended to fork out a detailed specification of the functional requirements for developers of the harvest-time. It as well provides an overview of the product for the users. It volition apologize the purpose and features of the system, what the systems do and the constraints under which it volition operate.This SRS document contains the complete software requirement for Post authorization Transaction ashes and describes the design decisions, architectural design and the detail design needed to implement the system. It provides the profile in the design and provides reading needed for software support. 1. 2 Scope This software is utilize by system Administrator, Supervisor, Assistant and Lab technicians. The system is knowing to provide user au and sotication by maintaining the user database which contains all the enlarge of user along with login enlarge such as username and cry.Each user has a un care level of operation for the documentation purpose. The solution go ou t provide a well-organized and coordinated system where the tide rip and presenter records are managed more efficiently with divulge security. The major goal of the system is to provide synchronized and centralized donor and dividing line expect database to the demarcation bank. It similarly improves the efficiency of derivation stock counselling by alarm the cable bank executive director. System lead provides traceability of donor in case of emergency. It also provides feat evaluation utilise report multiplication. 1. 3 Definitions, Acronyms, and AbbreviationsThis subsection should provide the definitions of all terms, acronyms, and abbreviations required to powerful interpret the SRS. This information may be provided by reference to one or more appendixes in the SRS or by reference to other documents. 1. 4 References 1. www. bharat melodic phrasebank. com 2. www. stockban configurationia. com 1. 5 Overview This document contains a apprize storey and insight into the problem as well as what the system is designed to do, the scope of the solution. It gives a brief summary of whom the system is targeted at, its capabilities, and its positioning in the twisting development process.It also explains requirements of the system and also where on the button the user and stakeholders are dimensiond in the proposal of things. It elaborates on security foreshortens, ironware and software requirement and also the priorities of various functionalities. The document helps the user to understand the Blood Bank System. The first part of the document provides the purpose, objectives and scope of the proposed system. It includes important definition, the problem statement square up the needed details to lift any kind of ambiguity from user’s perspective. The document also states the feature set and capabilities of the system.The document also highlights the feature of proposed system and the advantages over the existing system. The docume nt also highlights the various issues, error handling and the modification to be done in the system. The document is helpful to the user as it gives them opportunities to state what they expect from the system. In addition, the hardware specification required for the system is also mentioned. The user can read the document and make sure that his machine is equipped to run the system to avoid any inconvenience The user should make use of the document to understand the system better.The rest of this document provides a full description of the project for the countercurrent bank. It lists all the functions performed by the system. It gives the details of each of the system functions and actions in full for the software developer’s assistance. It also gives the overview of the problems currently faced by the system and provides solutions for the same. 2. General Description The project deals with the problem of automated forethought system that is sustentationing track of the actual core of rip stock in the farm animal bank and to understate human errors.The solution will provide a well-organized and coordinated system for decline bank where the broth and donor records are managed more efficiently with better security and added automation functions in alerting the administrator when the blood meter is d throw the stairs par level and about the expire en experiments. In addition, the administrator can also trace back the donor responsible in case of reactive specimen in blood transfusion and blood exhibit result. This system also creates a convenient and paperless environment for the blood bank in managing donors and processing blood stocks.The registration time for old donor is sawed-off as the records are retrievable from the system. Also the performance evaluation is possible using report generation facility. 2. 1 Product Perspective This system keep the track of all the actual amount of the blood stock in the blood bank to minimize the hu man errors. 2. 2 Product Functions 1. System will also maintain Blood occupation records and dismiss register. 2. System will provide levels of operators for authentication purpose. 3. System will provide an authentication form where the users will fill the details. 4.System will process the request of login. 5. System will check for the entered details in the login database. 6. If the entered username and rallying cry are legal then the system will grant access to the user else will present an error message. 7. System will provide 5 interfaces such as Testing Interface, Blood Stock Interface, pop Interface, giver Registration Interface and Statistics Interface. 8. sponsor Registration Interface will take all the personal and medical checkup details of donor and establish a unique id for each donor. 9. If the donor already has an id then will go back its details. 10.In Testing Interface, if the results are positive then fling register is up ensured with sample details. 11. If the results are negative Blood Stock depositary is updated with sample details. 12. In Blood Stock Interface, system will generate unique pop out total for each product. 13. It will generate alerts when the blood quantity is below par level and about the run out samples. 14. The System will move expired sample details to sky register and update blood stock repository. 15. In Issue Repository, system will check blood stock repository for availability. 16. If stocks are available then system will place an issue enounce. 7. It will generate a distinguish which includes bag number and details of sample. 18. In Statistics analysis, system will generate various reports. 19. The whole transaction of the blood will be recorded in a system 20. The software will perform the stock management & bill generation. 21. every(prenominal) the transaction of the blood will be updated at heart a small period of time. 22. The software will generate all the annual record of the blood b ank.. 23. It will also maintain the record of the blood donor. 24. It will also maintain the record of the spurned blood and the rejection for the blood rejection. 2. User Characteristics The user mustiness have the basic association of the computer system. It is non necessary that the user must have the knowledge of the computer hardware. System administrator, supervisor, assistant and lab technicians. 2. 4 General Constraints * Blood bank employees ,donors 2. 5 Assumptions and Dependencies * The System will not allow any user with invalid username and invalid password. * The system should not provide administrative privilege to any customer. 3. Specific Requirements The systems should requite the below given requirements. 1. operating(a) System: Windows XP maestro 2.Database Management System (DBMS): MySQL 5. 0 3. Peer to helpmate connection. This can be done by connecting both the systems using a pose cable and enceinte different IP addresses to them. 3. 1 External Inter face Requirements System Interfaces The systems should satisfy the below given requirements. 4. Operating System: Windows XP Professional 5. Database Management System (DBMS): MySQL 5. 0 6. Peer to peer connection. This can be done by connecting both the systems using a cross cable and giving different IP addresses to them. User Interfaces User Type| Intended Interaction| 1. presenter REGISTRATION a. New donor b.Regular donor| * The system will take all the personal and medical details of donor and generate an unique id for the donor. * The system will take donors id as input, validate it and retrieve all its details including last donations. | 2. Administrator Login | * This login pageboy will take input as username and password from the administrator * The system will validate the inputs and provide access to the system with more privileges to system and administrator| Testing | * This will take the input as blood group, donor id, date of collection; test carried out and its res ult.If the test results are positive then sample details are moved to discard register otherwise to blood stock repository. | Blood stock| * It will take all the details of the samples including blood group, its product details, date of collection, date of preparation, date of expiry, result of testing and generate a bag number. * It will generate alerts when the blood quantity is below par level and about the expired samples. * The expired sample details are moved to discard register and removed from blood stock repository. | Issue| * It will take input as product name, quantity, blood group and validate it with blood stock repository. If the stock is available then issue order will be displace. * It will generate a label which includes bag number, details of sample and so forthtera | Statistics Display Page| * The administrator has access to this page. It displays all statistical data regarding the various issue orders placed, blood stock repository and testing screening. * Repo rt generation. | 3. 5 Non-Functional Requirements close †To provide authentication to donors. Objective 1 †Create unique id for donor’s. a. Accept donor personal and medical information for new donors. b. supply unique id for each donor.Objective 2 †Process authentication request. a. Accept donor id in case of veritable(a) donor. b. Retrieve donor’s profile. Goal †To manage Blood Stocks. Objective 1 †Process blood stock details. a. Accept product details like collection date, expiry date, blood group etc. b. Generates a unique bag number. Objective 2 †Establish connection with Issue interface and testing interface. a. Validate stock details for issue. b. Update blood stock repository after testing is negative. Goal †To generate reports and label. Objective 1 †To generate report. a.Generate product statistics b. Generate yearly, monthly reports and provide it to the administrator. Objective 1 †To generate labels for issue. a. Generate labels for the issue order placed. b. allow it to the customer along with the date of delivery 3. 5 Non-Functional Requirements 7. 1. 1 Availability * For the customers, the services available are: Registration as a donor, placement of issue order. * For the administrator, the services available are: Manipulation of databases, change the functionalities provided by the system and monthly and yearly reports generation. . 1. 2 Security * This system maintains consistency and security as the blood stock details can’t be modified by the administrator or the other user. The system analyses the issue order placed by the customer and accordingly fulfills it. The system will also provide authentication by using username and password. * The donor’s database will have its own security to prevent unauthorized write/ scratch access. The donor’s details will not be disclosed while issuing. 3. 8 legitimate Database Requirements The databases used by the system a re * Donor database Blood stock database * Discard database * Account database User database: The purpose of this database is to store the required information of the donors and their id’s. This database will be used for traceability of donor. The donors will fill their information while registration. Their credentials will be relieve in this particular database. Blood Stock database: This database is used to maintain blood stock information. It maintains the details of valid samples. Discard database: This database is used to store details of blood samples which have to be discarded.This will contain information of expired samples and those samples which reacted positively in testing screening. Accounts database: The purpose of this database is to store the account details regarding issue of blood sample and to maintain the history of all the previous(prenominal) transactions. This database will be used by the administrator so that he can calculate the total cost of the is sue orders placed. Accessing capabilities: 1. Only administrator can set the role of users and their access capabilities 2. No user can access anything outside its accessing capability .\r\n'