Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The Sitcoms of the 1970s Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Sitcoms of the 1970s - Essay Example The television sitcoms of the 1970s explored our racism, sexism, and class bias and uncovered a reality that exposed the depth of prejudice in America and the television industry. Because television during this period was an evolving event, it's helpful to view it somewhat chronologically. By 1970 Leave it to Beaver had been deceased for 7 years. Ozzie and Harriet passed in 1964 and My Three Sons had just two more seasons of life left. The image of the typical American family that consisted of a well employed father living in suburbia had been exposed as a myth and could no longer support a sitcom. The 1960s and the war in Vietnam had dissolved the country's innocence and America was ready to explore their new maturity. No other vehicle would spark as much social, political, or cultural debate as the American sitcom during this period. The years 1970 - 1972 were as important for what was canceled as much as for what was debuted. In 1971, the rural south was virtually eliminated from the comedy half-hour format. Green Acres and the Beverly Hillbillies were both canceled. These two shows depicted an unrealistic view of the South and rural America in general. Characters were put in positions that were not believable while portraying a bias against the underlying themes of bigotry and ignorance. Mayberry RFD and Hee Haw, shows that reflected the widely accepted view of rural common sense and decency, also got cut in 1971. These shows would be replaced by more urban and topical settings with characters capable of generating greater controversy and better demographics (Butsch 19). Idealism was being tempered by network economics. A major theme that ran throughout the 1970s sitcom was the reshaping of our perception of the American household. The picture of the house being headed by a strong father figure was fading. Women were becoming more dominant and shown as more independent in shows such as Mary Tyler Moore and Maude. The men were portrayed with character flaws such as Archie Bunker in All in the Family and Fred Sanford in Sanford and Son. Men were underemployed and if married lived with a dominant female. This restructuring of the household offered the producers and writers the opportunity to explore issues that the white middle class male could not approach. June Cleaver could not even discuss abortion, while Maude Findlay could have one. Ward Cleaver did not drink while Walter Findlay, Maude's husband, was an alcoholic ("Maude"). Many sitcoms of this era were placed in a household where the children were grown. This provided an environment for adult issues to be aired and debated. It would also offer the contrasting social viewpoints that were emerging at the time. No other show propelled the 1970s sitcom genre as much as All in the Family did when it debuted in 1971. Producer Norman Lear had gone to the edges of the American psyche to explore racism. Yet, television was still in its adolescence and this was shown in the naivet of the program's plot and writing. Archie Bunker, the lead character, was an avowed bigot who referred to minorities as "Spades, Spics, or Hebes" and believed that their social gains were coming at the expense of the middle class whites ("All in the Family"). Lear believed that by playing Bunker as a misguided fool, his bigotry would likewise be

Monday, October 28, 2019

Global Warming Essay Example for Free

Global Warming Essay Among The most profound environmental problems, Global Warming is one of the serious problem. Former vice president Al Gore takes his environmentally friendly political agenda to the big screen with the documentary ‘An Inconvenient Truth’. The film follows Gores platform of recognizing global warming as a worldwide problem. Gore says the truth must be revealed or there will be consequences to pay . Since the beginning of Industrial Revolution, atmospheric concentration of CO2 have increased by 30%, Methane concentration by 100% and Nitrous oxide concentration by about 15%. These increases have enhanced the heat trapping capability of the Earth’s atmosphere. The combustion of coal, oil and natural gas accounts for most of the heat trapping greenhouse gases emitted by human activities. Most of the best and brightest in the world scientific community, however, believe we are heading for the trouble. But coal and petroleum products are abundantly used for moving the life cycle of people. Asking such people to slow down or choose more expensive alternative energies is asking for trouble. Petroleum industry is very big industry In which there are millions of people employed and the millions of families thriving on this for their livelihood. To find out the solution of Global Warming merely alleging the petroleum industry and burning of fossil fuels then those millions of people who are depending on these industries are badly affected. There are so many other causes also which are responsible for the Global Warming like industrial revolution, nuclear radiations and emitting of green house gases. 98% of total global greenhouse gas emission are natural, mostly water vapour; the effect of water vapour is not well understood. Some of the critics of Al Gore’s ‘Inconvenient of Truth’ says â€Å" An Inconvenient Truth, Al Gore makes absurd remarks about global warming that stretch well beyond the IPCC claims. This clip demonstrates some of Gores various exaggerations on the subject of global warming†. There could be benefits in the wake of the planet’s warming. Increased rainfall, created by climatic fluctuations, in a semi arid region will raise agricultural productivity. Rising CO2 levels cause plants to grow faster and absorb more CO2, through photosynthesis. Longer growing seasons may boost yields in northern Canada and Europe. In fact, a vast majority of scientists now believe that even an immediate and dramatic cut in global greenhouse gas emissions would not fully prevent climate change impacts. Even USA, world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, is not willing to be subjected to any kind of restraint on their energy use. USA has not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The country claimed that if it has to implement the provisions of the Protocol, the economic losses will be heavy and will drive 5 million Americans out of work. Policies to promote energy efficiency, in the long run, will improve economic performance, at the individual firm or country level. Global warming is a global problem calling for global solutions; no nation alone can defeat the problem. Industry must develop energy – efficient vehicles, consumer goods and production processes. â€Å" Most important, individual households must contribute to emissions reduction through their power of consumer choice and their personal lifestyle decision†. Reference: With inputs from â€Å" Is Apocalypse Near, Far or Never? † by G. Vijaya Raghavan V S M Nair.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Iago Essay -- essays research papers

Iago, More than Just a Villain Iago, the evil villain of Shakespeare's Othello, is more than just a villain. In many ways he is the most intelligent and appealing character in the play. Iago shows superiority over the rest of the characters in the play. He has the ability to manipulate the characters in the play, therefore controlling the play with every sequence of events. His intelligence shines through his ability to deceive, his ability to strategize, and his ability to twist the truth. Iago is appealing to the characters of the pay because he gives them what they want. Iago is appealing to the reader as well. His character is totally unconflicted about being evil, making him known to some authors as the villain of all villains. Iago is, in many ways, the most intelligent and appealing character in the play. Iago has a sophisticated way of deceiving the characters of the play, making him a very intelligent person. Early in the play Othello introduces Iago to the Duke of Venice as, â€Å"My ancient / A man he is of honesty and trust† (!. iii. 284-85). This is but one of the times in the play that Iago is referred to as honest and true. Throughout the play Iago is considered to be honest, but is actuality the villain. In order to maintain this false image one has to have a beguiling character. After Othello and his lieutenant, Michael Cassio, return from the war against the Ottomans, there is a celebration. At this celebration Iago puts his manipulation to work. He knows that Othello and Desdemona’s love for each other is very true, but he tells Rodrigo that Desdemona had love for Cassio: â€Å"With as little a web as this will I ensnare as great a fly as Cassio. / Ay, smile upon her, do†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (II. I. 164-65). This quote shows that Iago deceives Roderigo into believi ng that Desdemona loves Cassio, when in Roderigo’s eyes it is virtually impossible. Iago basically controls Rodrigo because Iago deceives him into believing that he can have Desdemona, by both Cassio and Othello. Iago uses his strategically apt abilities to come up with a very intelligent system that will eventually destroy Othello. After Iago and Rodrigo find out about Othello and Desdemona’s marriage, Iago manipulates Rodrigo into making him angry, because Rodrigo has feelings for Desdemona. Iago and Roderigo go to Brabantio’s abode to enrage him by telling him about Othello and Desdemona: â€Å"Call up her ... ...sio is in fact in love with Desdemona, and that Cassio is in fact doing dishonesty to Othello. Othello does get discouraged by this advice given by Iago, and eventually does confront Desdemona. The quote specifically displays how Iago can make Cassio seem evil to Othello. Iago persuades Othello into believing him, which creates a way for Iago to work around the truth. Iago completely changes the appearance of Cassio, therefore making Iago extremely intelligent and far superior. Iago’s magnificent intelligence and superiority make him a very intriguing character. Iago is not just any villain that comes into a town, with a black cape and knife that scares everyone, he destroys and â€Å"kills† by using creative tactics that could only be thought of by someone who is brilliant. He deceives, strategizes, and twists the truth with amazing ease. Iago maintains his on point intelligence by staying completely unconflicted about being evil. Iago is completely committed as he states, â€Å"[He will] turn her virtue into pitch, / And†¦ make the net / That shall enmesh them all† (II. Ii. 366-368). Iago is considered a cross between God and the Devil, as shown in the, â€Å"Divinity of Hell!† (!!. ii. 356)

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Family Health Essay

Diversity among individuals, as well as cultures, provides a challenge for nurses when it comes to delivering meaningful health promotion and illness prevention-based education. How do teaching principles, varied learning styles (for both nurses and patients), and teaching methodologies impact the approach to education? How do health care providers overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention? Provide an example. 1)We live in a very diverse nation and overcoming challenges related to cultural beliefs and preferences is a very common obstacle for health care workers today. In an article in The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing cultural diversity is defined as being more than just race, Health care workers must realize that addressing cultural diversity goes beyond knowing the values, beliefs, practices and customs of African Americans, Asians, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Americans/Alaskan Natives, and Pacific islanders. In addition to racial classification and national origin, there are many other faces of cultural diversity. Religious affiliation, language, physical size, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability (both physical and mental), political orientation, socio-economic status, occupational status and geographical location are but a few of the faces of diversity. (Camphina-Bacote, 2003) Health care workers have to diligently accommodate the many needs of all the individuals they encounter. These needs range from diverse deep cultural backgrounds, varying learning styles and learning preferences, and mixed opinions defining health and well being. Language barriers may also be a hardship for health care workers to overcome. An example of how health care workers can overcome differing points of view would be demonstrated in their ability to accommodate to the specific needs of the patient. For example a Hispanic patient who is a Jehovah’s Witness and only speaks Spanish has been ignoring abnormal signs and symptoms of rectal bleeding for several weeks. She comes into the hospital and is worked up and then diagnosed with colon cancer. The early treatment process  requires a colon resection. The risks are discussed with the patient and the risk of blood loss with the surgery is covered. During the operation the patient does experience some bleeding and has hemoglobin that drops down well below normal range to 5.3. In the Jehovah’s Witness culture they do not believe in accepting blood transfusions. After the procedure the pt. is transferred to the ICU. In the ICU the visiting hours are typically restricted to specific hours and this patients family does not understand and does not feel comf ortable leaving there loved one unattended. In the scenario described above there are several examples of possible obstacles that the health care worker must overcome. First would be the language barrier. The use of an interpreter service would be required to be certain that the patient has a concrete understanding of the diagnosis, the treatment, signs and symptoms of chemo and radiation, education for follow up treatment etc. The second obstacle to consider would be the religious belief and refusal of blood products. The risks associated with anemia and possibly educating the pt. and family about natural options available to try and raise hemoglobin nutritionally with iron and vitamin supplements. The third obstacle could be the cultural preferences of family dependency and honoring and providing care for elders. The new diagnosis of cancer is difficult and when you add complexities like language barriers and specific religious beliefs it can make the process even more complicated. Health care workers must be very agile in t heir abilities to create flexible learning environments for the many diverse encounters the will have. References: Camphina-Bacote, J. (2003). Many faces: Addressing diversity in health care. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8, retrieved from 2) Health practices and beliefs are diverse among all cultures in relation to health, illness, birth and death. What is equally true is that there is also diversity within the cultural group; therefore nurses must develop health  promotion and illness prevention-based education that is focused on the individual while taking into considering teaching and learning styles that are culturally relevant. Teaching and learning methodologies, principals, styles or approaches are perhaps the most challenging for nurses. Not only are nurses diverse in culture, sex, age, socioeconomic and religion, we are also part of a discipline that is diverse in practice. It is necessary to acknowledge our own beliefs, biases as it relates to other culture groups so that we don’t unintentionally create barriers to learning. Health care providers can overcome differing points of view regarding health promotion and disease prevention by creating a learning environment built on mutual trust, respect and acceptance. The goal is to provide education that is built upon the individual or group strengths that empower and engage the group/individual to be an active participant. It should encourage decision-making that positively affects lifestyle and health behavior changes. Through experience and education I have had the opportunity to see the diversity within the Hispanic culture. There are major differences with this group in terms of immigrants and acculturated Hispanics. One notable difference is in health care practices. Immigrants take on the traditional formal practices in regards to illness. They are more likely to practice home remedies recommended by a relative such as the use of herbs (yerbas), and healers (curandero), or seek a spiritual healer or religious leader for prayer before seeing a physician because the perception of illness is that it is an act of God for bad life or lifestyle. Therefore their life is in Gods hands. Acculturated Hispanics are more likely to adopt American health practices, depending on access and resources available in health care. However, in some cases a certain residual traditions and practices are seen even acculturated Hispanics. What one individual or cultural group perceives to be important or relevant may be insignificant to another. Reference Lipson, J. G., & Dibble, S. L. (Eds.). (2006). Providing Culturally Appropriate Health Care: Culture & Care 3) Low health literacy, cultural barriers, and limited English proficiency have been coined the â€Å"triple threat† to effective health communication by the Joint Commission. Nurses, who work with patients from increasingly diverse cultural groups, experience daily how these three threats offer a challenge to the effective provision of care at the system, provider and patient levels. Patients deserve culturally and linguistically competent healthcare. First and foremost nurses should continually develop their ability to practice cultural self-awareness so as to better recognize their own cultural and linguistic assumptions and biases. Because health literacy depends on cultural and linguistic factors, there is a need for patient assessment tools that can efficiently collect information on patient literacy, linguistic ability and cultural beliefs. So that providers rely on assessment tools, not on â€Å"gut feelings†. Nurses should make appropriate use of medical interpreters and cultural brokers. Medical interpreters should be cross-trained in cultural competence and health literacy, in addition to medical interpretation training. Understanding cultural differences enables nurses to use appropriate teaching such as oral patient education instead of pamphlets or written materials they may not understand. A teaching tool for ESL is Picture Stories for Adult ESL Health Literacy, which gives students and teachers a starting point for talking about complex healthcare problems and solutions. The assumption that patients understand â€Å"enough† is a common misconception in the operating room. Nurses are responsible for assessing the patients while  the surgeons and anesthesiologist often rely on the information in the chart. The patient is rarely able to verbalize or explain what the doctor is going to do. The Cyracom phone is a indispensable tool used in the operating room to assess and educate culturally diverse patients. We are the patient advocates and must be proactive in providing teaching and answering questions and making sure patients understand what is happening to them. Singleton, K., Krause, E., (Sept. 30, 2009) â€Å"Understanding Cultural and Linguistic Barriers to Health Literacy† OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. Vol. 14, No. 3, Manuscript 4 4) Culture refers to the learned, shared and transmitted knowledge of values, beliefs and ways of life of a particular group of people that generally pass on from generation to generation and it influence thinking, decisions, and actions in certain way and manners (Singleton & Krause, 2009). Culture and language affect how patients attain and apply skills in health care which makes patient education very difficult for nurses to achieve a better outcome for the patient. Nurses are in a position to make better connections between patient culture, language, and health literacy in order to improve health outcomes for culturally diverse patients. Nurses today are providing care, education and case management to an increasingly diverse patient population that is face with triad of cultural, linguistic, and health literacy barriers (Singleton & Krause, 2009). Patient education is essential in assisting patients to live with illness and to have improved health outcomes. Patient education is also one of the most satisfying aspects of care provided by professional nurses. To facilitate learning, nurses must apply effective patient teaching strategies. This process includes assessing and prioritizing learning needs, assessing learning styles, and implementing teaching strategies designed to address identified learning needs (Chang & Kelly, 2007). For example, a family friend had a baby three years ago; she lost a lot of  blood as a result of some complication during child birth. Her hemoglobin was 8gm/dl (Normal 12.1-15.1gm/dl) which was low compare to the normal. Doctor wants her to get blood transfusion which she and her immediate family did not want because of their cultural beliefs. The provider gave options on how she can increase her hemoglobin by eating food rich in iron and vitamin B; eat fruits and vegetables high in vitamin C, which will help her body to absorb iron and Iron supplement tablet. The first obstacle there was her cultural beliefs which the provider has to overcome by providing her with an alternative to increase her Iron level. Second obstacle was decision making. In different cultures, individual may look to the nuclear family, extended family, or family head to make decision. The decision for Iron supplement was a family decision due to their cultural beliefs. Furthermore, patients make decisions that are similar to their health beliefs systems to which their culture permit. If the provider does not subscribe to the same health belief system regarding disease etiology as does the patient, health directions may not be followed and conflict may arise between the patient and the provider. Hence, it is important that providers consider the patient’s beliefs when providing health education and interventions (Chang & Kelly, 2007). References: Chang, M., & Kelly, A. (2007). Patient Education: Addressing Cultural Diversity and Health Literacy Issues. 27(5), 411-417. Retrieved from Singleton, K., & Krause, E. (2009). Understanding Cultural and Linguistic Barriers to Health Literacy. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 4(3), Retrieved from

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Testicular Cancer

Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Testicular cancer occurs in the testicles (testes), which are located inside the scrotum, a loose bag of skin underneath the penis. The testicles produce male sex hormones and sperm for reproduction. Compared with other types of cancer, testicular cancer is rare. But testicular cancer is the most common cancer in American males between the ages of 15 and 34. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, even when cancer has spread beyond the testicle. Depending on the type and stage of testicular cancer, you may receive one of several treatments, or a combination.Regular testicular self-examinations can help identify growths early, when the chance for successful treatment of testicular cancer is highest. Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Testicular lumps Living with cancer newsletter Subscribe to our Living with cancer newsletter to stay up to date on cancer topics. Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include: ?A lump or enlargement in either testicle ?A feel ing of heaviness in the scrotum ?A dull ache in the abdomen or groin ?A sudden collection of fluid in the scrotum ?Pain or discomfort in a testicle or the scrotum ?Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts Unexplained fatigue or a general feeling of not being well Cancer usually affects only one testicle. When to see a doctor See your doctor if you detect any pain, swelling or lumps in your testicles or groin area, especially if these signs and symptoms last longer than two weeks. Make an appointment with your doctor even if a lump in your testicle isn't painful. Only a small percentage of testicular cancers are painful from the outset. CAUSES it’s not clear what causes testicular cancer in most cases. Doctors know that testicular cancer occurs when healthy cells in a testicle become altered.Healthy cells grow and divide in an orderly way to keep your body functioning normally. But sometimes some cells develop abnormalities, causing this growth to get out of control — t hese cancer cells continue dividing even when new cells aren't needed. The accumulating cells form a mass in the testicle. Nearly all testicular cancers begin in the germ cells — the cells in the testicles that produce immature sperm. What causes germ cells to become abnormal and develop into cancer isn't known. Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Living with cancer newsletter Subscribe to our Living with cancer newsletter to stay up to date on cancer topics.Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include: ? An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth. Men who have a testicle that never descended are at greater risk of testicular cancer than are men whose testicles descended normally. The risk remains even if the testicle has been surgically relocated to the scrotum. Still, the majority of men who develop testicular cancer don't have a history of undes cended testicles. ?Abnormal testicle development.Conditions that cause testicles to develop abnormally, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, may increase your risk of testicular cancer. ?Family history. If family members have had testicular cancer, you may have an increased risk. ?Age. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men, particularly those between ages 15 and 34. However, it can occur at any age. ?Race. Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in black men. Preparing for your appointment By Mayo Clinic staff Living with cancer newsletter Subscribe to our Living with cancer newsletter to stay up to date on cancer topics.Who to see Make an appointment with your family doctor or a general practitioner if you find a mass on a testicle. If your doctor suspects you could have testicular cancer, you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in treating cancer (oncologist). How to prepare Because appointments can be brief, and because there's often a lot of ground to cov er, it's a good idea to be well prepared for your appointment. Try to: ? Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions. At the time you make the appointment, be sure to ask if there's anything you need to do in advance, such as restrict your diet. Write down any symptoms you're experiencing, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment. ?Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes. ?Make a list of all medications, as well as any vitamins or supplements that you're taking. ?Take a family member or friend along, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to absorb all the information provided during an appointment. Someone who accompanies you may remember something that you missed or forgot. Questions to askYour time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time together. List your questions from most important to least important in case t ime runs out. For testicular cancer, some basic questions to ask your doctor include: ? Do I have testicular cancer? ?What type of testicular cancer do I have? ?Can you explain my pathology report to me? Can I have a copy of my pathology report? ?What is the stage of my testicular cancer? ?What is the grade of my testicular cancer? ?Will I need any additional tests? ?What are my treatment options? What are the chances that treatment will cure my testicular cancer? ?What are the side effects and risks of each treatment option? ?Is there one treatment that you think is best for me? ?What would you recommend to a friend or family member in my situation? ?Should I see a specialist? What will that cost, and will my insurance cover it? ?If I would like a second opinion, can you recommend a specialist I should see? ?I'm concerned about my ability to have children in the future. What can I do before treatment to plan for the possibility of infertility? ?Are there any brochures or other prin ted material that I can take with me?What Web sites do you recommend? In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment at any time that you don't understand Most men discover testicular cancer themselves, either unintentionally or while doing a testicular self-examination to check for lumps. In other cases, your doctor may detect a lump during a routine physical exam. To determine whether a lump is testicular cancer, your doctor may recommend: ? Ultrasound. A testicular ultrasound test uses sound waves to create a picture of the scrotum and testicles.During an ultrasound you lie on your back with your legs spread. Your doctor then applies a clear gel to your scrotum. A hand-held probe is moved over your scrotum to make the ultrasound image. An ultrasound test can help your doctor determine the nature of any testicular lumps, such as if the lumps are solid or fluid filled. Ultrasound also tells your doctor w hether lumps are inside or outside of the testicle. Your doctor uses this information to determine whether a lump is likely to be testicular cancer. ?Blood tests. Your doctor may order tests to determine the levels of tumor markers in your blood.Tumor markers are substances that occur normally in your blood, but the levels of these substances may be elevated in certain situations, including testicular cancer. A high level of a tumor marker in your blood doesn't mean you have cancer, but it may help your doctor in determining your diagnosis. ?Surgery to remove a testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy). If your doctor determines the lump on your testicle may be cancerous, he or she may recommend surgery to remove the testicle. Your testicle will be analyzed in a laboratory to determine if the lump is cancerous and, if so, what type of cancer.Determining the type of cancer Your doctor will have your extracted testicle analyzed to determine the type of testicular cancer. The type of tes ticular cancer you have determines your treatment and your prognosis. In general, there are two types of testicular cancer: ? Seminoma. Seminoma tumors occur in all age groups, but if an older man develops testicular cancer, it is more likely to be seminoma. Seminomas, in general, aren't as aggressive as nonseminomas and are particularly sensitive to radiation therapy. ?Nonseminoma. Nonseminoma tumors tend to develop earlier in life and grow and spread rapidly.Several different types of nonseminoma tumors exist, including choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, teratoma and yolk sac tumor. Nonseminomas are sensitive to radiation therapy, but not as sensitive as seminomas are. Chemotherapy is often very effective for nonseminomas, even if the cancer has spread. Sometimes both types of cancer are present in a tumor. In that case, the cancer is treated as though it is nonseminoma. Staging the cancer Once your doctor confirms your diagnosis, the next step is to determine the extent (stage ) of the cancer. To determine whether cancer has spread outside of your testicle, you may undergo: ?Computerized tomography (CT). CT scans take a series of X-ray images of your abdomen. Your doctor uses CT scans to look for signs of cancer in your abdominal lymph nodes. ?Blood tests. Blood tests to look for elevated tumor markers can help your doctor understand whether cancer likely remains in your body after your testicle is removed. After these tests, your testicular cancer is assigned a stage. The stage helps determine what treatments are best for you. The stages of testicular cancer are: ? Stage I. Cancer is limited to the testis. ?Stage II. Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the abdomen. ?Stage III.Cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Testicular cancer most commonly spreads to the lungs, liver, bones and brain. ?Treatments and drugs ?By Mayo Clinic staff ?Living with cancer newsletter ?Subscribe to our Living with cancer newsletter to stay up to date on cancer top ics. ? ?The options for treating your testicular cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, your overall health and your own preferences. Treatment options may include: ? Surgery Surgery to remove your testicle (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is the primary treatment for nearly all stages and types of testicular cancer.To remove your testicle, your surgeon makes an incision in your groin and extracts the entire testicle through the opening. A prosthetic, saline-filled testicle can be inserted if you choose. You'll receive anesthetics during surgery. All surgical procedures carry a risk of pain, bleeding and infection. ?You may also have surgery to remove the lymph nodes in your groin (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection). Sometimes this is done at the same time as surgery to remove your testicle. In other cases it can be done later. The lymph nodes are removed through a large incision in your abdomen.Your surgeon takes care to avoid severing nerves su rrounding the lymph nodes, but in some cases severing the nerves may be unavoidable. Severed nerves can cause difficulty with ejaculation, but won't prevent you from having an erection. ?In cases of early-stage testicular cancer, surgery may be the only treatment needed. Your doctor will give you a recommended schedule for follow-up appointments. At these appointments — typically every few months for the first few years and then less frequently after that — you'll undergo blood tests, CT scans and other procedures to check for signs that your cancer has returned.If you have a more advanced testicular cancer or if you're unable to adhere closely to the recommended follow-up schedule, your doctor may recommend other treatments after surgery. ?Radiation therapy Radiation therapy is a treatment option that's frequently used in people who have the seminoma type of testicular cancer. Radiation therapy is also used in certain situations in people who have the nonseminoma type of testicular cancer. Radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams, such as X-rays, to kill cancer cells.During radiation therapy, you're positioned on a table and a large machine moves around you, aiming the energy beams at precise points on your body. Side effects may include fatigue, as well as skin redness and irritation in your abdominal and groin areas. You may experience infertility as a result of radiation therapy. However, as the treated area heals, you may regain your fertility. ?Chemotherapy Chemotherapy treatment uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy drugs travel throughout your body to kill cancer cells that may have migrated from the original tumor. Your doctor might recommend chemotherapy after surgery.Chemotherapy may be used before or after lymph node removal. Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the drugs being used. Ask your doctor what to expect. Common side effects include fatigue, nausea, hair loss, infertility and an increased risk of infection. There are medications and treatments available that reduce some of the side effects of chemotherapy. Prevention Living with cancer newsletter Subscribe to our Living with cancer newsletter to stay up to date on cancer topics. There's no sure way to prevent testicular cancer. Some doctors recommend regular testicle self-examinations to identify testicular cancer at its earliest stage.Not all doctors agree, though, so discuss testicular self-examination with your doctor if you're unsure about whether it's right for you. If you choose to do a testicular self-examination, a good time to examine your testicles is after a warm bath or shower. The heat from the water relaxes your scrotum, making it easier for you to find anything unusual. To do this examination, follow these steps: ?Stand in front of a mirror. Look for any swelling on the skin of the scrotum. ?Examine each testicle with both hands. Place the index and middle fingers under the testicle while placing your thumbs on the top. Gently roll the testicle between the thumbs and the fingers. Remember that the testicles are usually smooth, oval shaped and somewhat firm. It's normal for one testicle to be slightly larger than the other. Also, the cord leading upward from the top of the testicle (epididymis) is a normal part of the scrotum. By regularly performing this exam, you will become more familiar with your testicles and aware of any changes that might be of concern. ?If you find a lump, call your doctor as soon as possible. Testicular cancer is highly treatable, especially when identified early

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Macadamia Nut Poisoning in Dogs Essay Example

Macadamia Nut Poisoning in Dogs Essay Example Macadamia Nut Poisoning in Dogs Paper Macadamia Nut Poisoning in Dogs Paper Macadamia Nut poisoning in dogs| Roger Meadows| VET 123 Mrs. Owens | | Macadamia nuts come from the Macadamia tree grown in the United States, mostly found in Hawaii. They are popular ingredients found in cookies and candies or on a table during a party. Every year, calls are made to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center about dogs eating different amounts of macadamia nuts. The findings from these fairly rare calls have close to the same outcomes and are remarkably consistent (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Macadamia nut toxicosis can last up to 48 hours and have symptoms that are very uncomfortable, though it is unlikely to be fatal in dogs. Dogs that have ingested macadamia nuts may look to be in pain, have weakness in the back legs, might acquire a low grade fever and tremors may start. This should all get better over a 48 hour period, but dogs experiencing more than mild symptoms should see a veterinarian, and care may include intravenous fluid therapy and pain control (ASPCA, n. d. ). 48 calls about dogs eating macadamia nuts came into the ASPCA APPC between 1987 to 2001. Weakness, depression, vomiting, ataxia, tremors, and hyperthermia are the clinical signs that were most reported. In 94% of the cases in which dogs had consumed macadamia nuts from the periods of 1998 to 2001, reports show at least one of these signs. Wide ranges of dosage were reported over the time period. Based on ASPCA APCC data, weakness was reported after dogs ingested as little as 2. 4 to as much as 62. 4 g/kg. Vomiting was reported to occur after the ingestion of 7 to 62. 4 g/kg. The mean amount of macadamia nuts ingested was estimated to be 11. 7 g/kg (range 2. 2 to 62. 4 g/kg). The reported time from ingestion of nuts to development of clinical signs was less than 12 hours in 79% of the cases. These clinical signs of toxicosis were reproduced in the laboratory after administering 20 g/kg (about 2 tsp. /lb. ) of commercially prepared roasted macadamia nuts to four healthy dogs via a stomach tube. (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002) The dogs developed marked weakness with the inability to stand on their rear legs by 12 hours after dosing. Extensive blood tests were performed, but only serum lipase activities were elevated. All dogs appeared normal within 48 hours. Tremors were not noted in the perimentally exposed dogs. The reports of tremors in the field cases were probably related to muscle weakness (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). â€Å"In a search of the human medical literature revealed reports of anaphylactic reactions to macadamia nuts similar to other nut IgE-mediated hypersensitivities† (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). In this medical collected works, no symptoms similar to what happens in dogs are found in human reports. There has been found in the macadamia nut kernel a protein that reveals antimicrobial, but the importance of this research is unknown. Why dogs show signs of toxicosis when they eat macadamia nuts it not really know. Why dogs are getting sick may be specific to the dog or involve the ingredients of the nuts themselves. Toxins from processing, mycotoxins or other unidentified causes may also be at fault (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Macadamia nut toxicosis is based on a history of known exposure and consistent clinical signs for a diagnosis. Macadamia nut identification in vomit or stool, empty containers that have been chewed up, or if the dog was seen eating the nuts are all part of the history of exposure. Chocolate-covered macadamia nuts also may result in methyl xanthine toxicosis and should be treated accordingly if thought to have been eaten. If a dog shows signs of back leg weakness and no nervous system involvement or musculoskeletal pain or and signs of wounds then macadamia nut poisoning should be considered (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Make your dog vomit as soon as possible and then call your vet immediately if you think your dog has eaten macadamia nuts with in the last hour. By having your dog vomit you can reduce the amount of nuts digested by the dog, so if you could not get your dog to vomit then the veterinarian will do it for you. Activated charcoal coats the lining of the digestive system and that will reduce the amount of nuts digested so your veterinarian may give this also. Until the toxin passes out of your dog’s system he will be treated as each new symptom appears. Hyperthermia is treated by cooling the body’s core temperature. Cool wet towels can be used to cover the body and even intravenous fluids will work. Never use an ice bath, because this could cause the problem to get much worse. If the dog’s body temperature has been significantly elevated for a long period of time, the dog’s clotting mechanisms can be severely compromised. In this case, the dog would need possible plasma transfusions and heparin therapy† (Macadamia Nut Poisoning in the Dog, 2011). Medications can help to stop the trembling if sever e muscle tremors start. A fast or racing heart rate can be treated with medication if need be. These medications will be stopped after the dog begins to return to normal (Macadamia Nut Poisoning in the Dog, 2011). In most cases, the dog can return home in around 48 hours as the signs are mostly gone by then. The prognosis for complete recovery with no evidence of complications is very good for most dogs with the common signs. Dogs regularly return to normal within 24 to 48 hours according to the ASPCA APCC’s experience, with only observation at home. Every case managed by the ASPCA APCC has resulted in complete recovery to date (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Macadamia nut ingestion in two pet dogs; Case 1 â€Å"In December 2000, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) received a call involving a 1. 5-year old, castrated, 14. 1-lb (6. 4-kg) bichon frise that reportedly ingested 4 oz. f macadamia nuts (17. 7 g/kg) late in the day. The owner reported that seven and a half hours after ingestion, the dog vomited a large quantity of macadamia nuts and could not stand or walk without support. The ASPCA APCC veterinarian advised the owner, based on the clear evidence of macadamia nut exposure and the consistency of the clinical signs with known field and research cases, t hat recovery without treatment was expected within 12 to 36 hours. The dog remained at home under observation. When contacted by phone three days after exposure, the owner reported that the dog’s clinical signs had subsided. The owner did not recall exactly when the dog had returned to normal† (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Case 2 â€Å"In July 2001, the ASPCA APCC received a call involving a 9-year-old, castrated, 26. 8-lb (12. 2-kg) cocker spaniel that reportedly consumed 5. 3 oz. of macadamia nuts (12. 3 g/kg) one hour earlier. The dog was reported to be moderately ataxic with muscle tremors and mild dyspnea. In this case, the attending veterinarian administered an enema and provided pain relief combined with other symptomatic and supportive care before contacting the ASPCA APCC. No additional treatment procedures were recommended. Within nine and a half hours, the clinical signs resolved, and the dog fully recovered† (Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs, 2002). Referemces Macadamia nut poisoning in the dog. (2011). Vet blog. Retrieved on August12, 2011 from http://vetblog. co. uk/vetblog/macadamia-nut-poisoning-in-the-dog Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs. (2002). aspcapro. Retrieved onAugust15, 2011 from www. aspcapro. org/mydocuments/x-toxbrief_0402. pdf ASPCA. (n. d. ). Virtual pet behaviorist. Retrieved on August 16, 2011 from aspcabehavior. org/articles/71/Foods-That-Are-Hazardous-to-Dogs-. aspx

Monday, October 21, 2019

Dementia Essays

Dementia Essays Dementia Essay Dementia Essay There are many causes of dementia,including neurological disorders such as Alchemies s disease,blood flow-related (vascular) disorders such as multi- infarct disease,inherited disorders such as Huntington s disease and infections such as HIVE. The most common causes of dementia include: Degenerative neurological diseases such as Alchemies s,dementia with Lee dies,Parkinson s and Huntington s. Vascular disorders ,such as multiple- infarct dementia,which is causes by multiple strokes in the brain. Infections that affect the central nervous system,such as HIVE dementia complex and Credulity-Jacob disease. Chronic drug use. Depression. Certain types of hydrocephalus,an accumulation of fluid in the brain that car result from developmental or brain tumors. Alchemies ;s disease causes 50-70% of all dementia. However ,researchers are finding that some Of what was previously considered Alchemies s disease is really one of two other degenerative diseases: Eely body and Pick s ease-There also are a number of other important disorders that can lead to dementia-Some of these are potentially reversible,at least partially and should be considered before a diagnosis of Alchemies s disease is made. 2. Describe the likely signs and symptoms of the most common causes of dementia. The first signs of dementia are short-term memory loss. Symptoms of dementia are dependent upon the areas of brain are affected and the key symptoms are include: Loss of memory-Forgetting some recent incidents and inability to recall information, Disorientation-people forget their familiar surroundings neighborhood, wondering how they got there and do not know how to get back home. Communication- people suffering from dementia forget simple words and substitute some irrelevant words in their speech,this making it difficult to understand for the listener. Abstract thinking- people suffering from dementia have trouble carrying out simple calculations such as adding numbers and sometimes even forget the purpose of numbers and calculation. Poor or reduced judgment-people suffering with dementia have poor judgment and do not know how to react IR emergencies. Performance of familiar tasks- people face difficulty in reforming daily activities such as preparing a meal or coffee,operating an oven,making telephone calls Etc Mood or behavior changes- people suffering from dementia exhibit rapid changes in moods such as a happy / joyous mood to tears or anger for no apparent reason. Misplacing articles- people with dementia tend to misplace articles in unusual places,such as placing a wristwatch in a sugar bowl,etc. Loss of initiative- people become passive-watching TV for longer duration,sleeping for longer hours and not performing normal activities. Change in personality dramatic changes in irrationality of people suffering from dementia are also observed. 3. Tontine the risk factors for the most common causes of dementia. There are many risk factors of dementia,many of which are as a result of damage or changes in the brain: Certain disease such as Alchemies s ,Parkinson s,Eely body diseases. Certain diseases that affect the blood vessels due to stroke Which can cause multi-infarct dementia. Excessive consumption of alcohol and drugs. Deficiency in nutrition such as vitamin BIB and foliate deficiency. Infections such as AIDS,dementia complex and Credulity-Jacob disease . Accumulate f fluid (hydrocephalus) in the brain can lead to developmental abnormalities,injuries, and/or brain tumors. Head injuries- may be a single severe injury or several injuries as in the case of boxers, Illness of the kid or liver,lung infections. 4. Identify prevalence rates for different types of dementia. Prevalence rates of different types of dementia to include: prevalence increasing in 6 (20%) people over the age of 80 having a form of demented The prevalence rates in the UK (i. E. How frequent dementia occurs population)as per 2013 figures based on Alchemists Society research. 40-arrears-1 in 100 5-69 years- 1 in 100 70-79 years 1 in 25 80+ years 1 in 6 The number Of people with these differ ent types Of dementia can then be broken down into the following: Alchemists Disease 62%, Vascular dementia 17%, Dementia with I-eve. . Ray Bodies 4%, Front-temporal Dementia 2%. Statistics: 835,000 people with different types of dementia in 2014(Alchemies s society AAA)- England 700. 000 (84%), Scotland Wales 45,000 (5%), Northern Ireland 20,000 (2%). 40,000 younger people with dementia in 201 3; 25,000 people from black in 2013. Outcome 4 Understand factors relating to an individual s experience of . Describe how different individuals may experience living with dementia depending on age,type of dementia,and level of ability and disability. A diagnosis of dementia will have a big impact on your life. You and yours family may worry about how long you can care for yourself *specially if you live alone. People with dementia can remain independent for some time but will need support from family and friends. LIVING AT HOME in the wary stages of dementia ,many people with dementia are able to look after their homes in the same way as before their diagnosis. As the illness gets worse ,people with dementia find it difficult to look after their homes and will ones help with daily activities such as housework and shopping . They may also need adaptations to their home to keep themselves safe,mobile and independent. KEEPING ACTIVE- People with dementia should continue to enjoy their hobbies and interests. These activities are enjoyable and keep people alert and stimulated so they maintain an interest in life. Do not rule out an activity simply because you or your family member has dementia. Activities may change as the illness gets worse,but people with dementia can and should intention to enjoy their spare time.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

German Proficiency Tests and Certification

German Proficiency Tests and Certification At some point in your study of the German language, you may want to, or you might need to take a test to demonstrate your command of the language. Sometimes a person may want to take it for his or her satisfaction, while in some cases a student may be required to take a test such as the Zertifikat Deutsch (ZD), the Großes Sprachdiplom (GDS), or the TestDaF. There are more than a dozen tests you can take to certify your proficiency in German. Which test you take depends on several factors, including for what purpose or for whom you are taking the test. If you plan on attending a German university, for instance, you need to find out which test is required or recommended. While many colleges and universities have their in-house proficiency tests, what we are discussing here are established, widely recognized German tests offered by the Goethe Institute and other organizations. A standardized test such as the widely accepted Zertifikat Deutsch has proven its validity over the years and is recognized as certification in many situations. However, it is not the only such test, and some of the others are required instead of the ZD by some universities. There are also specialized German tests, particularly for business. Both the BULATS and the Zertifikat Deutsch fà ¼r den Beruf (ZDfB) test a high level of language competency for business German. They are only suitable for people who have the appropriate background and training for such a test. Test Fees All of these German tests require payment of a fee by the person being tested. Contact the test administrator to find out the cost of any test you are planning to take. Test Preparation Since these German proficiency examinations test general language ability, no one book or course prepares you for taking such a test. However, the Goethe Institute and some other language schools do offer specific preparatory courses for the DSH, GDS, KDS, TestDaF, and several other German tests. Some of the tests, particularly the business German tests, provide specific requirements (how many hours of instruction, type of courses, etc.), and we outline some of that in the following list. However, you need to contact the organization that administers the test you want to take for more detailed information. Our list includes Web links and other contact information, but one of the best sources of information is the Goethe Institute, which has local centers in many countries all over the globe, and an excellent Web site. (For more about the Goethe Institute, see my article: Das Goethe-Institut.) BULATS (Business Language Testing Service) Organization: BULATSDescription: The BULATS is a worldwide business-related German proficiency test administered in cooperation with the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. Besides German, the test is also available in English, French, and Spanish. BULATS is used by organizations to assess the language skills of employees/job applicants in a professional context. It comprises several tests that can be taken separately or in combination.Where/When: Some Goethe Institutes around the world offer the German BULATS test. DSH - Deutsche Sprachprà ¼fung fà ¼r den Hochschulzugang auslndischer Studienbewerber (German Language Test for College Admission for Foreign Students) Organization: FADAFDescription: Similar to the TestDaF; administered in Germany and by some licensed schools. The DSH examination is used to prove an international students ability to understand lectures and study at a German university. Note that, unlike the TestDaf, the DSH may be retaken only once!Where/When: Usually at each university, with the date set by each university (in March and September). Goethe-Institut Einstufungstest - GI Placement Test Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: An online German placement test with 30 questions. It places you in one of the six levels of the Common European Framework.Where/When: Online at any time. Großes Deutsches Sprachdiplom (GDS, Advanced German Language Diploma) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: The GDS was established by the Goethe Institute in cooperation with the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt, Munich. Students taking the GDS must be virtually fluent in German as it is rated (by some countries) as being the equivalent of German teaching qualification. The exam covers the four skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking), structural competence and dictation. In addition to spoken fluency, candidates will need advanced grammatical ability and be capable of preparing texts and discussing issues about German literature, natural sciences, and economics.Where/When: The GDS can be taken at Goethe Institutes and other testing centers in Germany and other countries. Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom (KDS, Intermediate German Language Diploma) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: The KDS was established by the Goethe Institute in cooperation with the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitt, Munich. The KDS is a German language proficiency test taken at an advanced level. The written test involves the understanding of texts, vocabulary, composition, understanding instructions, as well as exercises/questions about specifically chosen texts. There are also general questions on geography and German culture, plus an oral exam. The KDS satisfies university language entrance requirements.Where/When: The GDS can be taken at Goethe Institutes and other testing centers in Germany and other countries. Tests are held in May and November. OSD Grundstufe Ãâ€"sterreichisches Sprachdiplom Deutsch - Grundstufe (Austrian German Diploma - Basic Level) Organization: Ãâ€"SD-Prà ¼fungszentraleDescription: The OSD was developed in cooperation with the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport, the Federal Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Federal Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs. The OSD is a German language proficiency exam which tests general language skills. Grundstufe 1 is the first of three levels and is based on the Council of Europes Waystage Level specification. Candidates should be capable of communicating in a limited number of everyday situations. The exam comprises both written and oral elements.Where/When: At language schools in Austria. Contact the Ãâ€"SD-Prà ¼fungszentrale for more information. OSD Mittelstufe Austrian German Diploma - Intermediate Organization: Ãâ€"SD-Prà ¼fungszentraleDescription: Candidates must be able to handle a level of German beyond everyday situations, including intercultural skills. See the listing above for more about the OSD. Prà ¼fung Wirtschaftsdeutsch International (PWD, International Test for Business German) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: The PWD was established by the Goethe Institute in cooperation with Carl Duisberg Centers (CDC) and Deutscher Industrie-und Handelstag (DIHT). It is a German business proficiency test taken at an intermediate/advanced level. Students attempting this examination should have completed 600-800 hours of instruction in German business and economics. Students are tested on subject terminology, comprehension, business letter standards, and proper public relations. The examination has both written and oral components. Students attempting the PWD should have completed a course in intermediate business German and preferably an advanced language course.Where/When: The PWD can be taken at Goethe Institutes and other testing centers in Germany and other countries. TestDaF - Test Deutsch als Fremdsprache (Test (of) German as a Foreign Language) Organization: TestDaF InstituteDescription: The TestDaF is a German language proficiency test recognized by the German government. The TestDaF is most commonly taken by people who want to study at the university level in Germany.Where/When: Contact the Goethe Institute, other language schools, or a German university for more information. Zentrale Mittelstufenprà ¼fung (ZMP, Central Intermediate Test) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: Accepted by some German universities as proof of German proficiency. The ZMP was established by the Goethe-Institut and can be attempted after 800-1000 hours of advanced German language instruction. The minimum age is 16. The examination tests reading comprehension, listening, writing skills, and verbal communication at an advanced/intermediate level.Where/When: The ZMP can be taken at Goethe Institutes and other testing centers in Germany and other countries. Contact the Goethe Institute for more information. Zentrale Oberstufenprà ¼fung (ZOP) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: Candidates must show they have a good command of the regional variations of standard German. Must be able to understand complex, authentic texts and to express themselves accurately both orally and in writing. Level compares with that of the Kleines Deutsches Sprachdiplom (KDS). The ZOP has a written section (text analysis, tasks that test the ability to express oneself, essay), listening comprehension, and an oral examination. Passing the ZOP makes you exempt from the language entrance examinations to German universities.Where/When: Contact the Goethe Institute. Zertifikat Deutsch (ZD, Certificate German) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: Internationally recognized proof of basic working knowledge of the German language. Candidates must be able to deal with everyday situations and have a command of basic grammatical structures and vocabulary. Students who have taken about 500-600 class hours can register for the exam.Where/When: the examination centers set ZD exam dates. As a rule, the ZD is offered one to six times per year, depending on location. The ZD is taken at the end of an intensive language course at a Goethe Institute. Zertifikat Deutsch fà ¼r den Beruf (ZDfB, Certificate German for Business) Organization: Goethe InstituteDescription: A special German test aimed at business professionals. The ZDfB was developed by the Goethe Institute and the Deutsches Institut fà ¼r Erwachsenenbildung (DIE) and is currently being administered by the Weiterbildungstestsysteme GmbH (WBT). The ZDfB is specifically for those students interested in business relations. Students attempting this exam should have already completed an intermediate level course in German and additional courses in business.Where/When: The ZDfB may be taken at Goethe Institutes; Volkshochschulen; ICC members and other testing centers in over 90 countries.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Handmaid's Tale Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

The Handmaid's Tale - Essay Example Offred From her point of view, the story is narrated taking the audience through flashbacks, asides, and digressions to highlight her relationship with other characters and show the change in the society. She was disunited from her family following her capture and sentencing to the indoctrination centre. As a handmaid, Offred is forced to have relations with her master so that she can bear offspring for the infertile wife of the commander. She is depicted as an intelligent, perceptive kind woman, who bears enough faults to make her human. She is a single mother and feminist whose determination has seen her survive the worst of days in the new rule. Offred has a dark sense of humour, which helps her absorb the shock of the prevailing oppression and injustices. Moira is illustrated as a dear friend to Offred with their relationship dating back to college years. She is depicted as fiercely independent and capable of defending herself against the odds that face her as demonstrated when s he demands for her rights at the Centre. Moira is regarded as the logical one and offers the voice of reasons to uplift the spirits of her friends. As such, she represents courage and hope in a bleak future, traits that seem rare under the prevailing conditions. In addition, Moira is demonstrated as athletic, tenacious, irreverent and enormously resourceful. She also provides an alternative to the meek subservience and embrace of one’s fate with a rebellious nature as she defies Gilead values. Moira rejects male-female sexual interactions to instil defiance over authority since the Gilead rule does not support gay tendencies. Her problem with authority is cemented by her rebel actions against the fear that grips the society and escapes from the Centre. Moira’s personality can be equated to that of Offred’s mother who seems to have a kind of authority over the narrator. Offred and Moira have the will to live despite the losses they have experienced with the regim e change. They engage each other to uplifting their spirits and keeping the faith that all will be well despite their current predicament. This illustrates the level of care and compassion held by the two characters. They both are active feminists seeking freedom as they yearn for normalcy and the end of the social injustices. However, Moira has had successful attempts while Offred seems contend after she meets Nick, the Commander’s chauffeur. The Commander He is described as a grey-haired, semiretired military official to whom Offred is assigned to as a handmaid. He is illustrated as an intelligent man with a collection of books, which he enjoys reading as a scientist and a market researcher before the coup. The commander is among the founders of Gilead and as such is responsible for the current suffering and oppression in the society. However, he bends the rules helped forge by engaging Offred in a clandestine relationship where she visits his office. He is illustrated as a sympathetic man towards Offred and he seeks her companionship, though for selfish reasons. The commander is lonely and unhappy in his marriage; therefore, the relationship he establishes has selfish motives and does not care about the risk he puts Offred in. In this way, the commander plays the victim and prisoner, from which he seeks solace. He is morally conflicted as contemplates abdicating his role in the Gilead government,

Paper 3 (The Final) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Paper 3 (The Final) - Essay Example Beyoncà ©, on the other hand, had been a role model of popular culture for more than a decade now. She depicts talent and beauty that most young people look up to and desired to be. These two personalities in their own ways set the standards for beauty and define what popular culture is. By this, my paper will try to evaluate the effect of popular culture in people’s perception of beauty. I will explore two photos to prove that there is a connection between the photos, the popular culture and its role in influencing people’s lives and perspectives in terms of their social roles and in the aspect of beauty in particular. In her study â€Å"Britney, Beyoncà © and me – Primary school girls’ role models and constructions of the ‘popular girl’†, Barbara Read, discussed how gender and culture shape the values of young girls today into aligning them with what their role models are, like for example Lady Gaga and Beyoncà ©. According to Read (2), children’s peer culture play an important role in shaping the way they value things and construct meanings such that the more their friends want to become like their role models, they wanted the same things to happen to them too. According to the results of the study (Read 5), school girls look up to their female teachers primarily as their role models but this can be argued to be normal as teachers are the next best thing they normally look up to. The next school girls’ role models include female singers and performers such as Britney and Beyoncà © (Read 5). The photo above showed Beyoncà © as she performed Oxygen Festival in Ireland. The photo is an example of a framing vector in which the artist used edges of the image as well as other vectors within the image to direct viewer’s attention; this type was specifically used to include certain elements while excluding

Friday, October 18, 2019

In Alice Walkers Everyday Use,----------The Seagull Reader Essay

In Alice Walkers Everyday Use,----------The Seagull Reader - Essay Example This story demonstrates that traditional people have the right to preserve their beliefs and practices without interference from modern-thinking individuals, because modernity and traditions are both valuable and no one is superior to another. Traditional people deserve the same respect and tolerance as modern-thinking individuals. Mama decides that the quilt belongs to Maggie, because they represent the African tradition of using quilts for their functional purposes. The quilt represents rural tradition that only Maggie understands and supports. The quilt has never fundamentally changed and has only expanded, as generations passed it from one family to another. Since Mama knows that Maggie will proudly continue this tradition, she asserts to Dee that Maggie deserves these quilts more than her. Dee reasons with her mother that: â€Å"[Maggie is] probably be backward enough to put them to everyday use† (Walker). She looks down on Maggie for being a rural woman with no education and â€Å"breeding.† She believes that by treating this quilt as an artifact, she provides a better use for her heritage. Mama, however, is tired of people belittling rural folk. She knows that the quilt belongs to Maggie, because unli ke Dee, Maggie will use it for everyday use. And that is what their tradition is for- to be lived each day of their lives. Modernity and traditions are both valuable to human identity. Mama and Maggie have not changed their traditional attitudes and lifestyles, while Dee completely chooses to change her identity, because she is ashamed of her rural background. Mama and Maggie live simple, rural lives. Mama milks cows, kills boars, and wears flannel nightgowns to bed and overalls throughout the day. Maggie helps her mother in their everyday farm and house chores. By describing how Mama and Maggie love their work, Walker argues that rural people are also happy and content with their lives. Dee is also pleased as a liberal woman. She is the kind of person, who:

Immigration Debate Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Immigration Debate - Essay Example This essay Immigration Debate discusses the issues of illegal immigrants and the corresponding US laws. Traditionally, immigrants to the U.S. were less likely than those born in America to collect welfare. This historic arrangement has radically changed over the past three decades. Today, immigrant families are at least 50 percent more likely to receive federal benefits than those born in this country. Additionally, immigrants are more likely to adapt their lives to rely on the welfare system and studies have shown the longer immi ¬grants stay in the U.S., the more likely they are to be on welfare. To further aggravate the situation, when an illegal immigrant becomes a citizen, he can legally bring his parents who also have the right to become citi ¬zens. Approximately half of current illegal immigrants do not possess a high-school level education. Welfare use among this group and for low-skill immigrants granted amnesty is three times the rate for the U.S. born citizens. The hea ted rhetoric of the immigration debate has caused many to become fearful that their standard of life will dramatically decrease if the estimated 12 million illegal immigrants are permitted to stay in the country, so much so that there is a growing movement to disallow citizen status to the children of illegal immigrants born in the U.S. The 14th Amendment addresses this issue. â€Å"All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside†.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

The Athletic Trainer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Athletic Trainer - Research Paper Example An Athletic trainer is a medical expert concerned with various areas of an athletes care. The athletic trainer teaches and instructs the athletes on ways to avoid injury during competitions by use of exercise practices and warm-up schedules. In case an injury occurs to an athlete, it is the duty of the athletic trainer to examine the injured athlete and establish whether the athlete requires medical attention from a doctor. Athletic trainers are also involved in the management and administration of rehabilitation of athletes for instance through exercise and training. In addition, the athletic trainers engage in monitoring the progress and performance of athletes to avoid further injuries. They are also involved in applying and fixing supportive gadgets for instance support braces or tensor bandages. Generally, the work of athletic trainers involve ensuring that the athlete is fit and in god health. In this case, these trainers also work closely with other professionals involved in t he affairs of the athletes for instance the athletes’ doctors and coaches (Hand, 2011). It is evident that athletic trainers hired by sports teams concern themselves w primarily with preventing injury, examination of injuries as well as rehabilitation of the athletes. It is also evident that as the name suggests, the major function of the athletic trainer is not to train the athlete on the specifics of the competition but rather to ensure that the athlete is fit for the competition. Even though the athletic trainers mainly occur in professional sports, others occur in the public domain (Beach, 2011). Heron (2011) affirms that athletic trainers concern themselves with institution, amateur and professional athletes in addition to normal people injured while participating in various sports. Athletic trainers should undergo a system of education and training before they

Law Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Law - Term Paper Example The disastrous effects of these truths could carry forward into our future life which needs to be averted. (150 Words) Outline: Our present energy resources may not last long due to high rate of usage and unbridled consumption, especially by the industrial sectors. Therefore it has become necessary to seek new and alternative means for addressing this issue and providing means of its alleviation and mitigation, if not a long term solution that could effectively deal with this current issue. Developing several ways and means by which the dependence and funds spend on fossil fuels and contemporary energy sources could be reduced and innovative ideas leading to outsourcing of alternative energy sourcing could be developed and gainfully employed. Innovating and development may take time and resources. It is a long drawn process which requires sustained efforts and investments. It is also necessary to develop newer techniques through which existing energy resources could be optimized and effective control measures taken to limit its ineffective and inefficient use, through innovation. Introduction: The subject of seeking alternative and substitute means of generating energy resources needs to be seen in the context of depleting resources, due to mismanagement and slack control mechanism which does not address the core issues. Although much has been said about the need to tackle energy crisis on a war footing and seek renewable and alternative areas like harnessing wind, solar or nuclear energy for the advancement of human society, there are many areas in which improvements could be made for achieving such objectives. In the first place, there is legislation in place that is designed to control the use of energy. This is done by creating hybrid or alternative fuel usage in vehicles. It is planned that by year 2018, nearly 50% of

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

The Athletic Trainer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Athletic Trainer - Research Paper Example An Athletic trainer is a medical expert concerned with various areas of an athletes care. The athletic trainer teaches and instructs the athletes on ways to avoid injury during competitions by use of exercise practices and warm-up schedules. In case an injury occurs to an athlete, it is the duty of the athletic trainer to examine the injured athlete and establish whether the athlete requires medical attention from a doctor. Athletic trainers are also involved in the management and administration of rehabilitation of athletes for instance through exercise and training. In addition, the athletic trainers engage in monitoring the progress and performance of athletes to avoid further injuries. They are also involved in applying and fixing supportive gadgets for instance support braces or tensor bandages. Generally, the work of athletic trainers involve ensuring that the athlete is fit and in god health. In this case, these trainers also work closely with other professionals involved in t he affairs of the athletes for instance the athletes’ doctors and coaches (Hand, 2011). It is evident that athletic trainers hired by sports teams concern themselves w primarily with preventing injury, examination of injuries as well as rehabilitation of the athletes. It is also evident that as the name suggests, the major function of the athletic trainer is not to train the athlete on the specifics of the competition but rather to ensure that the athlete is fit for the competition. Even though the athletic trainers mainly occur in professional sports, others occur in the public domain (Beach, 2011). Heron (2011) affirms that athletic trainers concern themselves with institution, amateur and professional athletes in addition to normal people injured while participating in various sports. Athletic trainers should undergo a system of education and training before they

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Project Managers and Functional Managers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Project Managers and Functional Managers - Essay Example Project managers have more critical leadership challenges b. Project managers have multifaceted teams c. Project manager use synthesis, functional managers use analysis IV. Skills and competencies of project managers a. Traditional skills and competencies b. Emerging skills and competencies V. Project Managers and Functional Managers There is a greater emphasis on project management techniques in the business world today. This is because of the unique value that project management brings to certain aspects of the life of the organization that includes change management, product development, and marketing. Many businesses recognize that instead of relying on the functional managers to see specific projects through, it is better to organize such aspects under project managers. A project manager is the person who heads a team that handles a specific project that has a time limit, and which has verifiable resource limits (Flannes & Levin, 2005). Project managers participate more as team leaders than as bureaucratic entities. They normally work with cross-functional teams with members picked from various backgrounds to bring diversity to the project team. A functional manager on the other hand exists to coordinate the functions of an institution on ongoing basis. Normally, a functional manager will be responsible for the day-to-day operations of the department they head (Meredeth & Mantel, 2011). They tend to be in charge of departments like finance, accounts, human resource, and security, among others. It is important to note that functional managers may also serve as project managers for small-scale projects in the firm, which do not warrant the establishment of a separate project team. Normally, functional managers graduate into project managers when the need for project managers comes up in the firm. However, more and more organizations hire project managers at entry level because of the consistent nature of project operations in many companies. Most companies i n the IT and construction industries, for instance, operate under project regimes, hence they keep permanent project managers in their firms. Comparison of Project and Functional Managers There are some important similarities between project managers and functional managers. The first on is that they both manage people. More than anything else, they have a responsibility to ensure that the people under them are working towards achieving the overall aims of the organization. This makes them leaders to a varying degree in the organization. Secondly, they require technical competence in the functional role that they perform, or in the project area that they are in charge. Both types of managers need a substantial amount of appreciation of the issues that they deal with. In most firms, both managers will report to senior management of the company. Depending on the hierarchy, a project manager will more often be senior than a functional manager if the firm uses the progression described earlier. However, in other cases, these managers form part of the management team and interact t as peers. Another key characteristic that defines both project and functional managers is that they have specific tasks to accomplish. It is their role to deliver certain aspect of the organizations mandate and hence each of them answers for the tasks over which they superintend. Finally, both types of managers have resources at their disposal. The resource allocation procedures normally vary from the way departments get

Monday, October 14, 2019

Organic vs. Conventional Foods Essay Example for Free

Organic vs. Conventional Foods Essay For years, there has been a debate on how food is grown. Should it be organic or conventionally grown? To answer this question, the difference between the two needs to be known. Organic produce is grown without chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic livestock is free ranged, most of the time, with no added antibiotics or growth hormones. Conventionally grown produce is usually processed after being harvested. They are also sprayed with chemical pesticides and enriched with polluting fertilizers. Research Stanford University has held over 250 investigations that compared the nutritional value of organic and traditional crops. These studies show that organic foods tend to contain slightly more phosphorous, a higher level of omega ­3 fatty acids, and a 30% lower rate of chemical residue. However, traditional chicken and pork is one ­third more likely to contain antibiotic bacteria than organic meats. Bacterias that cause food poisoning are equally present in both traditional and organic. They have little difference in nutritional value. Organic When people see â€Å"organic,† they immediately think â€Å"pesticide ­free.† Organic products can still be labeled as organic, even if they contain commercial pesticides. The U.S. Department of Agriculture stated that almost 20% of organic lettuce showed up as positive for containing a   pesticide   called spinosad. Spinosad comes from a naturally occurring bacterium in soil. Although it is considered slightly toxic to the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), it can be used while farming and still be labeled as organic. Spinosad, under the name Entrust, is especially harmful to the nervous system of insects, and small marine life, like mollusks. Spinosad, as well as compounds made of natural elements like sulfur and copper, have made it onto a list of pesticides open for use on organic crops, which you can find on the USDA website. Organic farming became popular in the 1970s when the first pesticides and fertilizers were introduced. The effects of the chemicals they contained were soon noticed. The chemicals paralyzed the nervous system of many people. People became concerned with what they were consuming. Organic produce may have a longer storage time and lower input costs, but there is more bad that comes out of it than there is good. Organic crops have a longer growing time. Organic farming also requires more skill than needed for traditional farming and has higher risks of soil erosion. Despite the disadvantages, organic farming is more popular than ever. Organic products tend to have a more natural taste, and is believed to decrease the risk of the avian flu. Conventional Since organic farming is becoming so popular, traditional farming is beginning to be frowned upon. It is believed to be highly dangerous and an environmental risk. However, that is not the case. Conventional farmers are starting to focus on soil fertility techniques, such as crop rotation and composting. Although some farmers still use chemical based fertilizers, herbicides, and   pesticides, others have switched to fertilizers, herbicides, and   pesticides with little to no chemicals. Conventional farms can produce more crops per acre, replenish soil, decrease risk and topsoil erosion. Conventional farming is also cheaper and require less skill. The amount problems with conventional farming have risen over the years. These problems are becoming more serious. Droughts are a big problem when it comes to traditional farming. Crops rely on rainfall to live and grow properly. If a drought occurs, it is very likely for starvation in a community to happen. Also, crops must be sprayed with the right amount of pesticide or herbicide. If not given the right amount, crops, runoff, and local water sources can be contaminated. Suicide within the conventional farming community is also a very common thing. Since 2009, over 200,000 Indian farmers have committed suicide due to debts they could not pay off. The decreased sea levels and organic competition is the cause of their lowering profit. Price Differences The prices of organic products tend to be around three to four dollars more than regular produce and meat. Say you were at the grocery store. Your grocery list contained bread, a dozen eggs, and a half gallon of milk. If you were to buy these things as conventional products, it would cost around $7. However, organic versions of these products would cost about $11.50. Organic products, such as milk, eggs, or chicken, can cost up to five dollars more than conventional products. Which Should I Buy? Every year, the Environmental Working Group (EWG) releases two official lists of the crops with the most and least amounts of chemical residues. These lists are called the â€Å"Clean 15† and the â€Å"Dirty Dozen.† As of 2015, the crops that made the Clean 15

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Life and Religion in To Kill a Mockingbird :: essays research papers

In the book ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ written by Harper Lee in 1960, life in the town of Maycomb is very traditional. Most people have the same racial prejudices and live by certain rules, also referred to as ‘codes’ by Atticus Finch (p. 224). Aunt Alexandra is a good example as she is not from Maycomb but lives 20 miles away. When she comes to live with Atticus and his children, Jem and Scout, the town accepts her immediately for with her â€Å"boarding-school manners† (p.142), her ladylike behaviour and her enthusiastic involvement into the Missionary Circle and the ‘Maycomb Amanuensis Club’, she represents the ideal of a Maycomb woman. Although all people in Maycomb are quite different from each other, most of them, especially the more accepted, show respect, discipline and politeness. This can be seen in the Missionary Circle where ladies sit together to talk, drink tea and eat cakes (p. 253-259) and although they might not always agree on everything, they never directly say so. For example when Mrs Merriweather starts to criticise Atticus’ doing in Tom Robinson’s case, at a Missionary Circle in front of Scout - not naming anyone - Ms Maudie interrupts her and cuts off the subject without drawing anybody else’s attention to the quarrel. There are not many people in Maycomb who are open-minded and willing to accept different people and/or things, which makes it difficult to change. So after loosing the trial, Ms Maudie admits that she did not think Atticus had any chance of winning but that he was â€Å"the only man who could keep a jury out that long† and that it was a step, if only a baby-step, towards equality (p. 238). Furthermore this intolerance leads to Jem and Scout being confronted with offences against Atticus’ decisions by town people and fellow students. For one thing Mrs Dubose, an ‘evil’ neighbour of the Finch’s, criticises Atticus in a way that Jem is not willing to ignore and ends in him cutting down all her beloved camellias (p. 112-114). This in turn leads to Jem having to read to Mrs Dubose for more than a month (p. 117-122). For another thing the children at school badmouth Atticus probably with what they overheard their parents saying and this time it is Scout who looses her head a couple of times. In a small town like Maycomb there is also a lot of gossiping and prejudices against ‘lower class’ people.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Abortion Essay - GOD is Pro-life :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

Abortion: GOD is Pro-life The reason I am pro-life, and oppose abortion, is because GOD is pro-life, and opposes abortion. Scriptural evidence of this is abundant; consider the words of Ps. 139:13-14: "For You formed my inward parts; You covered me in my mother's womb. I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; marvelous are Your works, and that my soul knows very well." God then forbids the taking of innocent life [viz. a life not guilty of a capital crime, according to the law of God]. This is evident from verses such as Ex. 23:7, which says this: "Keep yourself far from a false matter; DO NOT KILL THE INNOCENT and righteous. For I will not justify the wicked Next, we ought to address our second question: Why not sit on our hands, and wait for the Lord to take us out of the wicked world? This is a very pertinent question today, and it directly affects a large percentage of evangelical Christians in America. Many are silent on abortion (and other abominations) because they believe that they can do nothing, and that the darker the days become the closer the coming of the Lord. In other words, "Why shine the rails on a sinking ship?" This view, though prominent, is perverse and anti-Scriptural. Christ our Lord commanded that we go into the world and spread the Gospel of grace, and in so doing bring about real change, and the extension of the kingdom of Jesus, our Risen Sovereign. Here are Christ's words to us, from Matt. 28:19-20: "Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age." Our third query is related to what we just observed, but it has its own nuance to it: "With the whole world against us, why put up a fight at all?" This is a faithless point of view, and it denies the ultimate power of God over the universe. On top of that, how would we have liked it if God took an attitude and approach like this to our salvation: "Since they're such wicked sinners--I'll just send them all to Hell!?

Friday, October 11, 2019

Hedging Currency Risks at AIFS Essay

The American Institute for Foreign Study (AIFS) is offering cultural exchange programs for American students and High School pupils throughout the world. Their customers have the possibility to go abroad while the AIFS organises the whole trip for them. Due to their business model the revenues of the company are denominated only in USD, since the offer is for American students who pay in USD. Meanwhile the costs of the company is mostly denominated in foreign currency because AIFS has to pay the transport, the hotel and much more in the countries in which their customers are travelling, hence the firm has to pay in the local currency of these countries. In consequence of the fluctuating exchange rate of USD against foreign currencies and the fact that AIFS fixes the price for their services before the costs can be estimated, the firm faces an inevitable currency exposure. In order to limit or eliminate this risk, AIFS has to hedge their currency exposure. At the moment the company hedges 100% of their exposure using forward contracts and currency options. Now Becky Tabaczynski, CFO of one of the main divisions, is creating a model, including different scenarios, with the goal of identifying which proportion of the exposure should be hedged at all and in which proportion forward contracts and currency options should be used for hedging. Not hedging at all could have disastrous consequences for the whole company because in the case of a weak dollar the costs could rise drastically while the revenues remain fixed. Suppose the company has fixed the prices for the current season and now the costs in Europe are one million euros, while the exchange rate is at 1.20 USD/EUR. This means the firm’s costs are 1.2 million dollar. If the dollar weakens against the euro and the exchange rates rises to 1.32 USD/EUR, costs for AIFS would increase by 10%. Thus costs would increase by The higher the costs turn out, the higher this negative effect would be in nominal amount. The biggest stake of the costs are in euro and pound sterling, hence these two currencies are of major concern. In case of a strong dollar the company would profit the most without hedging but due to the downside trend of the dollar against euro and sterling simultaneously in short and medium term (Exhibit 6 & 7) there is  reasonable evidence that AIFS s hould be prepared to cover their currency exposure. If the company would use 100% forward contracts to hedge their costs, they would fix the costs, no matter what happens to the exchange rates of dollar to foreign currencies. An advantage of this strategy is that AIFS does not have to bear any costs entering the forward contracts, but on the other hand, it will neither make a profit in case the dollar strengthens nor will it suffer a loss in case the dollar weakens. A more flexible but meanwhile more expensive strategy to hedge is only using currency options. That means AIFS would have to pay the option premium in any case but this strategy allows to profit from unlimited favourable movements while limiting losses by the premium. So if the spot rate at expiry is higher than the strike price, AIFS can exercise their option and buy foreign currency for the lower strike price. And if the spot rate at expiry is less than the strike price, AIFS can forget about the option and buy for the lower spot rate. In any case the option premium has to be added to the costs. The possible outcomes in the two described strategies and a scenario with no hedge at all are summarized in the table below. % Cover 100% 100% 0% Contracts 0% 100% – Options 100% 0% – 1.01 -3,725,000 0 -5,250,000 1.22 1,525,000 0 0 1.48 1,525,000 0 6,500,000 The table is based on a sales volume of 25,000 and average cost of â‚ ¬1,000 per participant. That means, with the current spot rate of 1.22 USD/EUR the costs would be $30,500,000 (â‚ ¬25,000,000 * 1.22 USD/EUR). The option premium in this case is 5% of the USD notional value that is hedged and three scenarios are examined: The dollar strengthens (1.01 USD/EUR) The dollar remains stable (1.22 USD/EUR) The dollar weakens (1.48 USD/EUR) In the first column the proportion of the hedged amount is given and in the second and third column of the table the proportions of forward contracts and currency options used to hedge are listed respectively. The fourth fifth  and sixth column show the nominal effect on the costs in each scenario relative to the ‘zero impact’ scenario (exchange rate remains stable at 1.22 USD/EUR) while it is assumed that in each hedging strategy the strike price is the current spot rate of 1.22 USD/EUR. Comparing the results of the table shows the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy. If 100% of the currency exposure is hedged only using options, the costs rise by $1,525,000 (which is exactly the option premium $30,500,000 * 5%) both in the ‘zero impact’ scenario and in the scenario of 1.48 USD/EUR, since in both cases the option will be exercised. In the case of a strong dollar (1.01 USD/EUR) the option will not be exercised since euros can be bought to the lower spot rate but the premium is lost. In total the costs still sink by 3,725,000 because the effect of the lower spot rate compensates the premium. Using only forward contracts to hedge results into no impact on the costs in any case since the exchange rate is fixed no matter what happens and there is no initial cost entering the contract. In case AIFS does not hedge at all, the costs either decrease by $5,250,000 if the exchange rate is 1.01 USD/EUR, or remain unchanged in the ‘zero impact’ scenario or increase by $6,500,000 if the exchange rate is 1.48 USD/EUR. The impact on the cost if nothing is hedged arises merely from the difference in the spot rate and is much stronger than in the hedged case. Since the company is highly affected by news of war, terrorism and political instability, events which are impossible to predict, I would suggest to alter their hedging policy and use mainly options for hedging. In case of such terrible news the forecasted volume of 25 thousand could drop up to 60%. That means in the worst case of a 60% drop, the companies costs decrease by 15 million euros but AIFS would be obliged to buy this amount if they are only hedged with forwards. Options instead would give the company more flexibility, which is a major issue since not only the exchange rates fluctuate but also the volume of participants. In my opinion AIFS should use proportions of 75% options and 25% forward contracts. In this way AIFS would fix the costs for a quarter of their exposure and still be flexible enough to react to different market circumstances and unforeseen events. Moreover AIFS should keep covering 100% of their exposure because they have already experienced a loss of $700,000 in 1995 while they only hedged 80%. In addition the company should continue to deal with 6 different banks to reduce the counterpart risk. In the following table the impact on the costs in different scenarios are summarized using the same methodology as in the table above. In the worst case scenario with 10,000 participants and in the scenario with 30,000 participants the currency exposure decreases to â‚ ¬10 million and increases to â‚ ¬30 million respectively but the impact on the costs using different proportions of forward contracts and options remains the same relatively speaking. Instead of derivatives, an alternative possibility for AIFS to hedge their currency exposure would be to set up accounts abroad in foreign currency up to a certain amount. This would simplify the hedging approach and it would be reasonable the business model of AIFS forces them to keep foreign exchange every year.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Brighton Rock by Graham Greene

In 1947 Donat O’Donnell wrote that â€Å"far more than the left-wing militancy of such poets as Auden and Spender†¦ the thrillers of Mr. Greene reflect the state of the West European mind in the thirties. † (25). For O'Donnell, Greene is â€Å"the most truly characteristic writer of the ‘thirties ir England, and the leading novelist of that time and place† (28). What Greene draws attention to in his novels from the period is, as McEwen notes, the condition of violence and savagery repressed beneath a seeming peace.Greene’s work such as Brighton Rock used the apparatus of the thriller to expose and investigate contemporary social problems; these novels are vehicles for social commentary particularly in the implicit equation they make between the violence and cruelty of their protagonists, Raven and Pinkie, and the background of poverty against which they are presented. This paper analyses Brighton Rock through a prism of narrative theory. In addi tion some socio-philosophical implications are discussed.Analysis In Brighton Rock Pinkie's gang murders Hale but only after he has made the acquaintance of Ida Arnold, a fun-loving pragmatist who repeatedly insists on her knowledge of the difference between right and wrong. Responding to an irrational compulsion—she calls herself a â€Å"sticker where right's concerned† (16)—she investigates Hale's death, seeking to bring Pinkie to justice and to save Rose the suffering that Pinkie will inflict upon her.Like Mather, Ida, despite fulfilling the role of the detective, is mocked by the narrative: her inability to see beneath the surface of things severely limits her understanding of the case and of the world she inhabits. Brighton for her is a place of fun and excitement, and life is always â€Å"good† (19, 72): â€Å"I always say it's fun to be alive† (17). The dark side, both of life and of the city with its beggars and its crime, is completely ali en to her (73):Death shocked her, life was so important. She wasn't religious. She didn't believe in heaven or hell, only in ghosts, ouija boards, tables which rapped . . . but to her death was the end of everything. . . . Life was sunlight on brass bedposts, Ruby port, the leap of the heart when the outsider you have backed passes the post and the colours go bobbing up. Life was poor Fred's mouth pressed down on hers in the taxi, vibrating with the engine along the parade. . .. she took life with deadly seriousness: she was prepared to cause any amount of unhappiness to anyone in order to defend the only thing she believed in. (36) Both her naive optimism, which has â€Å"something dangerous and remorseless† (36) in it, and her spiritual blindness prevent her from understanding Pinkie and Rose and account for the ironic tone that dominates many of the descriptions of Ida: Ida Arnold was on the right side. She was cheery, she was healthy, she could get a bit lit with the best of them.She liked a good time, her big breasts bore their carnality frankly down the Old Steyne, but you had only to look at her to know that you could rely on her. She wouldn't tell tales to your wife, she wouldn't remind you next morning of what you wanted to forget, she was honest, she was kindly, she belonged to the great middle law-abiding class, her amusements were their amusements, her superstitions their superstitions (the planchette scratching the French polish on the occasional table, and salt over the shoulder), she had no more love for anyone than they had. (80)This kind of mockery has led numerous critics to denigrate Ida for her lack of spiritual awareness (she boasts to Rose that â€Å"It's the world we got to deal with† [198]) and to elevate Pinkie to tragic stature because he professes a belief in a divine order (â€Å"it's the only thing that fits† [52], he says) wherein the crucial difference is not between right and wrong but between Good and Evil. In that Rose shares Pinkie's knowledge, she and Pinkie are presented both in the text and in critical discussions as morally superior to Ida and other characters like her such as Dallow, Cubitt, Colleoni, and Phil Corkery.The point is made particularly clear in comments made by Rose to Pinkie and in exchanges between Ida and Rose: â€Å"I only came here for your sake. I wouldn't have troubled to see you first, only I don't want to let the Innocent suffer†Ã¢â‚¬â€the aphorism came clicking out like a ticket from a slot machine. â€Å"Why, won't you lift a finger to stop him killing you? † â€Å"He wouldn't do me any harm. † â€Å"You're young. You don't know things like I do. † â€Å"There's things you don't know. † she brooded darkly by the bed while the woman argued on: a God wept in a garden and cried out upon a cross; Molly Carthew went to everlasting fire.â€Å"I know one thing you don't. I know the difference between Right and Wrong. They di dn't teach you that at school. † Rose didn't answer; the woman was quite right; the two words meant nothing to her. Their taste was extinguished by stronger foods—Good and Evil. The woman could tell her nothing she didn't know about these—she knew by tests as clear as mathematics that Pinkie was evil—what did it matter in that case whether he was right or wrong? (198) As is illustrated here, the narrative frequently contrasts two distinct views of the world—the secular outlook of Ida and others and the religious perception of Rose and Pinkie.From a social perspective there is no escaping the fact that Pinkie's evil makes him a criminal. However, as with Raven, Pinkie's guilt is mitigated by a background of poverty (â€Å"Man is made by the places in which he lives,† the text tells us [37]) and by the presence of Colleoni, a self-described â€Å"business man† (64), who, though the leader of a vast criminal organization, is also well reg arded by the Brighton police and by the Conservative party which seeks to persuade him into politics (159).As for Ida, whatever her shortcomings, she succeeds in her task of ridding society of Pinkie's menace, although the conditions that produced Pinkie, the source of the evil, remain. On one level, then, Ida is the instrument of law and order who brings about the socially desirable end, the social good, that Rose, representative of a religious or spiritual Good, cannot. Ida is, in this respect, a figure of the law defending a secular middle-class vision of society that relies on human justice which, as we have noted, Greene sees as both limited and limiting.On the other hand, criticism of Ida often seems to have at its root a prejudice against the detective story because it is a popular form of literature. Ida, herself, is strongly tied to popular culture, and in many respects she represents a populist spirit. The text tells us that â€Å"She was of the people, she cried in cinem as at David Copperfield, when she was drunk all the old ballads her mother had known came easily to her lips, her homely heart was touched by the word ‘tragedy'† (32). Similarly, her bed-sitting room contains the trappings of popular culture and an assortment of popular literature:pieces of china bought at the seaside, a photograph of Tom, an Edgar Wallace, a Netta Syrett from a second-hand stall, some sheets of music, The Good Companions, her mother's picture, more china, a few jointed animals made of wood and elastic, trinkets given her by this, that and the other, Sorrell and Son, the Board. (42) In one sense then, her success represents the triumph, albeit limited, of the popular. However, for critics like R. W. B. Lewis, Ida's â€Å"popular heart† (34) and her role as the investigating detective underpin the condemnation of her character and the neglect of her function in the book.In Lewis's eyes, the Ida Arnold plot threatens Brighton with the disaster of be ing two different books under the same cover (244): â€Å"The entertainment is Ida's; it begins with the first sentence . . . The tragedy is Pinkie's; it begins more subtly in the atmosphere of place† (243). As these remarks imply, not to condemn Ida is to elevate in their importance the book's detective-story aspects-something Lewis cannot and will not do. We can see in Brighton Rock how the detective story complements and underscores the narrative of Pinkie's religious struggle.To be fair, however, Lewis does recognize the interdependence of the two stories, despite his perception of â€Å"generic confusion† in the novel (239) the relation between the detective story and the tragedy expresses exactly what Brighton Hock is finally all about. It is a relation between modes of narrative discourse that reflects a relation between two kinds or levels of reality: a relation between incompatible worlds; between the moral world of right and wrong, to which Ida constantly and confidently appeals, and the theological world of good and evil inhabited by Pinkie and Rose.(244) However, we might add to these remarks that the relation between the two modes of narrative discourse can also be read as an inscription of the relationship between popular discourse and serious discourse. In the pure classical detective story that Todorov describes, the story of the crime becomes present in the text only through the story of the investigation; that is, the crime takes place outside the frame of the narrative and all its details are revealed only in the course of the investigation.The events leading to the crime make up a story that is seen only through its periodic intrusion by means of clues, or ciphers, into the story of the investigation which we read: we find out about the one story in the telling of the other. As Todorov figures it, this pattern reveals the two aspects that the Russian formalists identify as part of any story—fabula and sjuzhet—whe re the fabula is revealed only through the sjuzhet while yet providing the sjuzhet with the material of its own existence.However, as we have noted, to determine which of these two precedes the other is a task fraught with ambiguity, and this ambiguity is reflected in Brighton Rock's departures from the paradigm of the classical detective story. This ambiguity emerges in the novel's handling of the mechanics of the classical detective story's structure: Ida explicitly begins her pursuit at the place from which Hale disappeared (81) and then works to reconstruct the crime which, as even Pinkie realizes (86), is the standard investigative process.In a general sense, Ida traces over the previously laid path of Pinkie and his gang—an activity that is consistent with the structural dynamics of the classical detective story plot—and so figures the actions of the sjuzhet (the discourse) upon the material of the fabula (the story). As well, her retracing figures the act of wri ting that produces narrative as a rewriting of a prior narrative which is repressed in the later narrative although its existence is revealed in the later narrative—the narrative of the investigation—through the presence of clues which are the tangible signs marking the return of the repressed.However, in Brighton Rock Ida's pursuit of Pinkie intensifies the story of Pinkie's efforts to avoid capture. As Ida proceeds in her reading or events—explicitly linked to her reading of an occult text (â€Å"Fresuicilleye†)—she uncovers indications of Pinkie's story marked in the narrative's details, which in more orthodox detective fiction are formalized as clues: things such as Hale's dislike of Bass beer and his confession that he was â€Å"going to die† (18) arouse Ida's â€Å"instincts† so that she senses that â€Å"there is something odd† about Hale's death (31).Late; details that come out after his death, such as the fact that he used a false name (31), had bruises on his arms (79), and left a restaurant without eating despite telling Ida he was hungry (33), confirm Ida's suspicions that something is puzzling about the death while, at the same time, they reveal details of Pinkie's story. As the novel progresses, it becomes clear that Ida's investigation of Hale's death forces Pinkie's actions.Since the official investigators agree that Hale died of natural causes, they have closed the case (78-80), which means that it is only Ida whom Pinkie has to fear. In an odd way, then, Ida's search originates, explains, and validates all of Pinkie's actions from his courtship of Rose to his murder of Spicer to his attempt to arrange Rose's suicide: as Dallow accuses Ida late in the novel, â€Å"this is your doing. You made him marry her, you made him . . . † (236).To be sure, Pinkie fears that the police may ask questions about the man who left the card at Snow's, but, as we realize, they do not and will not reo pen their inquiry. In their place, though, is Ida. In this sense, the detective story plot determines the course of Pinkie's story; although, conversely, it is Pinkie's story that gives rise to the detective narrative. The two lines of action are entangled in each other with each standing as the origin of the other.Indeed, the question of origin is complicated further by the fact that the disturbance that excites the narrative of Brighton Rock into being—the murder of Hale—is considered an act of revenge: the initial action occurs in response to an earlier action—the murder of Kite—the story of which, though sporadically erupting into Pinkie's story (63, 218-19), lies in another narrative, another text; as the text explicitly remarks, â€Å"The whole origin of the thing was lost† (217).As a model of narrative mechanics, then, Brighton Rock, figures narrative's ability to perpetuate itself by inscribing within itself two separate narrative strands t hat generate and then feed on each other. Since Pinkie's story—the story of the crime—sparks Ida's story into life and since her investigation determines the content of Pinkie's story, each story can be seen as the origin of the other as each lies behind the other. Ida's investigation uncovers the contents of Pinkie's story, but his narrative also becomes the means by which Ida's story is discovered.To illustrate with just one example of how this works one can look at part 4, section 1 (99-120), where Pinkie and Spicer are at the race track. Although the storyline in the foreground involves Pinkie's betrayal of Spicer to Colleoni's men, one glimpses the other narrative line involving Ida. Spicer tells Pinkie about a woman who â€Å"backed Black Boy for a pony† (103). One then finds out that Black Boy won the race, and again Spicer mentions the woman who now has won so much money (104); the narrative goes on to report that Pinkie â€Å"heard a laugh, a female la ugh† which is attributed to the same woman (104-105).She is, of course, Ida, who bets on Hale's tip and so wins enough money to persist in the investigation. In this example one sees how the story of detection is revealed in the telling of Pinkie's story. Another way for us to see the relationship between the two narratives of Ida and Pinkie, of investigation and crime, is to think of either narrative strand as the repressed content of the other: each reveals its presence in intermittent clues that surface into the respective narrative.However, whichever way one chooses to view Brighton Rock again depends on one's point of view, but ultimately one is looking at the same thing. Greene reflects the indeterminate nature of narrative origins in his handling of the classical detective story's structure. As Brighton Rock stands, the story of the detection is interrupted by the story of the criminal, which reveals details of the crime; the two stories are presented in roughly alterna ting chapters occurring more or less along a shared timeline.The reader, then, gains knowledge of the circumstances of Hale's death from two sources, the chapters dealing with Ida and the chapters dealing with Pinkie. The two stories of the investigation and the crime become blurred in the novel as each begins to include the other. As if to underscore this blending of narrative, it is notable that the novel's first scene places Pinkie, Ida and Hale in the same room: murderer, detective, and victim have their stories begin at the same time in the same place. The novel figures, then, the indeterminate nature of narrative origin from its outset.Because Ida's investigation of events, metaphorically figured in her reading of an occult text, both reveals and determines the text she reads, we also see in Brighton Rock how the perceiving subject effects what it perceives, and in terms of reading the implications of this action are complex. On one level, reading a text actualizes that text f or the reader by inscribing it in the reader's consciousness where it previously did not exist. At the same time, the reader sees in the text what he or she is, in a sense, programmed to see through his or her experience of the â€Å"already-read†.This phenomenon lies behind the differing judgments on Brighton Rock: probable or improbable plot, proletarian novel or moral allegory, detective story or religious drama, light fiction or serious literature, entertainment or tragedy, and so on. However it is seen, the novel is the product of an interpretive act. Brighton Rock shows us both how these differences are generated and how they coexist within the textual field of the novel. The question of how texts are read is one of the issues at the heart of Brighton Rock.Perhaps more than in other detective stories, Brighton Rock foregrounds the reading process as a concern from the first page when we find Hale as Kolley Kibber following a route (itself prescribed by a text) through B righton in search of someone with a copy of The Daily Messenger in hand who can repeat a prepared text: â€Å"You are Mr. Kolley Kibber. I claim the Daily Messenger prize† (5). Language is, thus, explicitly figured as a code. The text stresses that the claim must be made â€Å"in the proper form of words† (5), and hence the possibility of arriving at a correct, univocal reading of a text, of fully understanding the code, is implied.However, since the challenge Hale receives ultimately results in his death, we see figured in Brighton Rock the inadequacy of such a simple method of reading. This possibility is confirmed in the larger investigation of reading that is enacted in the novel. As the detective, Ida is the reader of the fictions that Pinkie creates to explain Hale's, Spicer's, and, though it does not occur, Rose's deaths. In producing these fictions, Pinkie uses tangible signs, which are meant to mislead their reader. The cards he has Spicer lay along Hale's rou te are meant to stand as the visible traces of Hale's presence, as Hale's signature.Similarly, in preparing the story of Rose's suicide, Pinkie uses a note that Rose herself has written and insists that she â€Å"add a piece† to explain her death (231); for Rose, this involves â€Å"signing away more than her life† (227) because in committing suicide she commits a mortal sin which will, according to her belief, damn her. But in both instances, and particularly in the latter, the creation of a fiction is explicitly tied to the production of a written text, and in this way the act of detection that involves the reading of Pinkie's texts mirrors the activity of Greene's reader and of reading in general.Conclusion If Brighton Rock demonstrates the limitations of reading, it also insists upon the necessity of reading. Just as Chesterton described every detail within the urban landscape as a sign to be read by the detective in his or her search for truth, so is every detail within a detective story of potential significance to the reader's interpretation of the narrative. In Brighton Rock the experience of the world is figured in terms of reading; the world of Brighton is explicitly a world of text.Rose's father's face is â€Å"marked deeply with the hieroglyphics of pain and patience and suspicion† (142); â€Å"the edge of the sea is like a line of writing in whitewash: big sprawling letters† (152); and Ida, herself, is likened by the narrative to an enigmatic text that insists it be read: â€Å"she stood there like a wall at the end of an alley scrawled with the obscene chalk messages of an enemy† (196). In this context, reading becomes an unavoidable activity linked to power; those best able to read or even to offer convincing and authoritative readings are those who exercise power in this world.Both Ida and the police are confident in their interpretations of clues and events. The police, assigned the task of interpreting evide nce in order to determine whether or not a crime has been committed, produce their own reading of Hale's death. Their report presents a univocal interpretation of the details of the death and so preserves their power because in their eyes and in the eyes of the society the case is solved.The closing of the case thus maintains an impression of efficiency, which, in turn, justifies the authority conferred upon the police. As Edwin Muir wrote of Pinkie in a review of Brighton Rock, â€Å"he is an evil product of an evil environment, a living criticism of society, and on that plane genuine† (76). Muir's remarks could just as easily apply to Raven, who is said to be â€Å"made by hatred† (66). Indeed, because one of his obsessive boasts is â€Å"I'm educated† (15, 46), the social system that shapes Raven is severely criticized.In Brighton Rock there are hints of a repressed desire for goodness and peace in Pinkie that are seen in his emotional reactions to music, his recollection of his days in the church choir and his desire to be a priest, his faint stirring of tenderness for Rose and pity for Prewitt, and his sense of an â€Å"enormous emotion beating on him . . . the pressure of gigantic wings against the glass† as he drives Rose to what he assumes will be her death (242)—all of which indicate that Pinkie's evil arises out of the corruption of his innocence.In his case, the crippling effects of his environment destroy a natural tendency to goodness. The three â€Å"entertainments† that follow Brighton Rock, while not abandoning the social critique of the books from the thirties, become more obvious than Greene's text was in the interrogations of the thriller form and of the structures of authority—whether political, literary or textual—that exist within society. Bibliography Greene, Graham. Brighton Rock. 1938. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1988._____________. Our Man in Havana. 1958. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 197 7. Lewis, R. W. B. â€Å"Graham Greene: The Religious Affair. † The Picaresque Saint: Representative Figures in Contemporary Fiction. Philadelphia and New York: Lipponcott, 1959. 220-74. McEwen, Neil. Graham Greene. Macmillan Modern Novelists. London: Macmillan, 1988. O'Donnell, Donat. â€Å"Graham Greene. † Chimera 5. 4 (Summer 1947): 18-30. Todorov, Tzvetan. The Poetics of Prose. 1971. Trans. Richard Howard. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1977.