Monday, September 30, 2019
This story is distinctive, however, in that Walker stresses not only the importance of language but also the destructive effects of its misuse. Clearly, Dee privileges language over silence, as she demonstrates in her determination to be educated and in the importance she places on her name. Rather than providing a medium for newfound awareness and for community, however, verbal skill equips Dee to oppress and manipulate others and to isolate herself; when she lived at home, she read to her sister and mother Ã¢â¬Å"without pity; forcing words, lies, other folksÃ¢â¬â¢ habits, whole lives upon us, sitting trapped and ignorant underneath her voice.Ã¢â¬ Mama recalls that Dee Ã¢â¬Å"washed us in a river of make-believe, burned us with a lot of knowledge we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily need to know. Pressed us to her with the serious way she read, to shove us away at just the moment, like dimwits, we seemed about to understandÃ¢â¬ (50). Dee uses words to wash, burn, press, and shove. We are told that the Ã¢â¬Å"nervous girlsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"furtive boysÃ¢â¬ whom she regarded as her friends Ã¢â¬Å"worshiped the well-turned phraseÃ¢â¬ and her Ã¢â¬Å"scalding humor that erupted like bubbles in lyeÃ¢â¬ (51). It is not surprising, then, that Mama, mistrustful of language, expresses herself in the climactic scene of the story not through words but through deeds: she hugs Maggie to her, drags her in the room where Dee sits holding the quilts, snatches the quilts from Dee, and dumps them into MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s lap. Only as an afterthought does she speak at all, telling Dee to Ã¢â¬Å"take one or two of the others.Ã¢â¬ MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, not her words, silence the daughter who has, up to this point, used language to control others and separate herself from the community: Mama tells us that Dee turns and leaves the room Ã¢â¬Å"without a wordÃ¢â¬ (59). In much of WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s work, a characterÃ¢â¬â¢s dawning sense of self is represented not only by the acquisition of an individual voice but also through integration into a community. MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s new appreciation of Maggie is significant because it represents the establishment of a sisterhood between mother and daughter. Just before taking the quilts out of DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, Mama tells us, Ã¢â¬Å"I did something I never had done beforeÃ¢â¬ (58). The Ã¢â¬Å"somethingÃ¢â¬ to which she refers is essentially two actions: Mama embraces Maggie and says Ã¢â¬Å"noÃ¢â¬ to Dee for the first time. Since we are told that she held Maggie when she was burned in the fire, and since MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s personality suggests that she would most likely hug her daughter often, she is of course referring not merely to the literal hug but to the first spiritual embrace, representing her decision noÃ longer to judge her younger daughter by the shallow standards Dee embodiesÃ¢â¬âcriteria that Mama has been using to measure both Maggie and herself up until the climax of the story. When Mama acts on MaggieÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf, she is responding to the largely nonverbal message that her younger daughter has been sending for some time, but which Mama herself has been unable fully to accept. Now Maggie and Mama are allied in their rejection of DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to devalue their lifestyle, and their new sense of community enables Maggie to smile Ã¢â¬Å"a real smile, not scared.Ã¢â¬ Significantly, the story ends with the two of them sitting in silence, Ã¢â¬Å"just enjoying, until it was time to go in the house and go to bedÃ¢â¬ (59). Ultimately, however. Mama has the last word: it is she, after all, who tells the story. Yet her control over the text is won gradually. Walker employs an unusual narrative structure to parallel MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s development as she strengthens her voice and moves toward community with Maggie. Rather than reporting the entire event in retrospect, Mama relates the first half of the story as it occurs, using present and future tenses up u ntil the moment Dee announces her new name. The commentary that Mama makes about herself and Maggie in the first portion of the story is therefore made before the awakening that she undergoes during the quilt episodeÃ¢â¬âbefore she is able to reject completely DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s desire that she and Maggie be something that they are not. Prior to the encounter with Dee over the quilts, although Mama at times speaks sarcastically about DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s selfish attitude, she nonetheless dreams repeatedly of appearing on a television program Ã¢â¬Å"the way my daughter would want me to be: a hundred pounds lighter, my skin like an uncooked barley pancake,Ã¢â¬ wielding a Ã¢â¬Å"quick and witty tongueÃ¢â¬ (48). MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s distaste for DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s egotism is tempered by her desire to be respected by her daughter. In part, then, Mama has come to define herself in terms of her failure to meet the standards of what Lindsey Tucker calls a Ã¢â¬Å"basically white middle-class identityÃ¢â¬ (88)Ã¢â¬âthe white-male-dominated system po rtrayed in the television show. When Mama holds up her own strengths next to those valued by Dee and the white Johnny Carson society, she sees herself as one poised always in a position of fear, Ã¢â¬Å"with one foot raised in flightÃ¢â¬ (49).
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The Human Inclination to Love In writing The Scarlet Letter, author Nathaniel Hawthorne was immersed in the era of transcendentalism and romanticism that so greatly influenced his work. Defining the movement was the concept that humans are inherently good in their nature and if they are left to their own devices ultimately they will do that good uncorrupted (Chase 109). Within The Scarlet Letter, this is brought to full awareness through the nature of Puritan society in the early English colony of Boston, Massachusetts.As a civilized, religious, and refined community this setting was foiled by the neighboring nd unexplored North American wilderness, in which the untouched and uncivilized human nature lurked amidst the shadows by society's standards. These settings assisted the specific character development of both Hester Prynne and Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale through the way they came to illustrate the human conditions of the human response to alienation by others, the human struggle between good and evil, and most significantly the inclination for humans to love.Furthermore, in the unique way both Hester and Dimmesdale share struggles and triumphs of human nature, along with the acceptance of their love for one another as influenced by the etting around them, is what allows the novel to be viewed as a romance. As it was established, the Puritan colony at Boston was meant to serve as an escape from the corrupted Church of England across seas and was to provide a place for a Marks 2 purified organization concerned with adherence to scripture, sermon, and above all doing good for the behalf of God.This gave to the affect that the Puritans of Boston did not want their community stained by the abomination that is sin. Upon Hester's emergence from the prison towards the scaffold a community woman violently roclaimed, Ã¢â¬Å"At the very least, they should have put the brand of a hot iron on Hester Prynee's foreheadÃ¢â¬ (Hawthorne 60). This stagnant mindset for the community based upon the call for castigation is what brought to affect Hester's symbol of the crimson Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ , that which she war forced to wear openly on her breast.The actions and reactions of the defined Puritan settlement set in motion the change in Hester through the course of events of the novel. Graciously Hester accepted with stride her initial humiliation upon the scaffold in which the entire community became aware she was an adulteress. She perfectly reacted to this stringent society to address the question of how as humans we respond to the alienation from others around us. Hester responded in her own original manner primarily through her repentance to discover the virtue of truth and self-satisfaction her scarlet letter embodied.Hester never attempted to free herself from her fate. She could have escaped Boston, however, she decided to continue to be a productive member of society with her cottage on the outskirts of town and sewing business. In addition, she c ontinued to be an active member of the church to further her penance. Hawthorne writes, Ã¢â¬Å"It is the credit of human nature, that, except where its selfishness is brought into play, it loves more readily than it hatesÃ¢â¬ (173).Hester developed to appease the society in which she lived as to make the best of the situation she had created for herself, her daughter Pearl, and partner in sin and lover Reverend Dimmesdale. She welcomed readily a seltless lite sne brought upon herself and lived for others as a symbol for the town. This was reflected in the way Hester transformed herself into a simple woman; she bound up her beautiful hair and wore drab clothing. She was a very attractive woman, however, she sacrificed this in the knowledge she acquired from her sin of passion and physical attraction.In return society came to conclude that Hester's embodiment in the scarlet Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ had come to signify Hester's unique strength in its newly found representation of the word Ã¢ â¬Å"AbleÃ¢â¬ (Hawthorne 175). The scarlet Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ came to change meaning with Hester's maturing in virtue. The setting came to forgive Hester, better her character, and ultimately do well for her. She bared the amount of strength necessary and was thoroughly able to conquer the evils of her sin through her epentance. Hawthorne writes, Ã¢â¬Å"Shame, Despair, Solitude! These had been her teachersÃ¢â¬ (215).Hester's goodness of character developed from her repentance is what allowed her to help sustain her lover and partner in sin Dimmesdale in his struggle between good and evil, helping to kindle their feelings for each other. Reverend Dimmesdale and Hester Prynne both fell into their sin far apart from what was acceptable by standards of Boston. According to Hawthorne, Ã¢â¬Å"This had been a sin of passion, not of principle, nor even purposeÃ¢â¬ (215). It was a sin of adultery, ltimately caused by the part of human nature that falls into physical attraction and pass ion.The sin of adultery as committed willingly together by Hester and Dimmesdale can parallel with the surrounding unexplored wilderness around Boston, which symbolizes in affect the evils and temptations humanity can come to fall to in its nature. Although the character of the wilderness surrounding the strict Puritan community at Marks 4 Boston may have lured Dimmesdale and Hester into their sin, the role of this setting changes throughout the novel. It becomes a sanctuary compared to Dimmesdale's truggle between good and evil in his decision whether to confess his hidden sin or not.The Puritan community in which Dimmesdale ministered served only as a place of his anguish and evil within for him, while the wilderness served to be a safe haven and place of goodness for the sake of his sanity. It also served for the ignition of his more emotional relationship with Hester. Therefore the integrity of Dimmesdale's heart comes to be the developing factor to his character. As minister of Boston, Dimmesdale held the identity of the community; he was the epitome of holiness. All arishioners of the community looked to him to be the carrier of people's sins and sufferings.However, unlike Hester who had openly the Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ on her chest allowing open repentance, Dimmesdale had no outlet for his evils enclosed in his inner heart while trapped by Puritan society and he was wearily clouded with guilt. He stood on no scaffold because he lacked the courage to confess he had trespassed against the sanctity of his position and his community. This when shed real light upon reveals that the setting itself caused Dimmesdale to betray his own heart and state of mind rather than anything else. Life in society served no assistance to Dimmesdale in his struggle of the human condition that is good against evil.Not any repetition of self- flogging or fasting could bring Dimmesdale closure to his actions. Ironically the setting that provided him with his anguish of sin gave him th e Ã¢â¬Å"moral blossomÃ¢â¬ of humanity that Hawthorne regards (56). This is love. The culmination of Dimmesdale's triumph ot evil came in his torest conversation witn Hester where their love is tlnally fully culminated. They are revealed Marks 5 as completely human and represent in a sense a new Adam and Eve. Both couples ad sinned together and had been punished for having violated the rules of their setting.Both Dimmesdale and Hester were fraught to bring an end toa close with the society in which they trespassed against, much as like Adam and Eve were reduced to a compromise with God himself after violating his one law in their setting of the Garden of Eden. However, regardless of what was to be of their fate, both pairs always were to be perpetually bonded. The sanctity of Hester and Dimmesdale's relationship was fully revealed in the way the sin they committed together created a similarity in compassion for one another and a need to help one nother.After seven years of no con tact between Dimmesdale and his love, the confirmation that Hester gives Dimmesdale that she still loves him is the help that allows Dimmesdale to finally confess his sin. Therefore, it is truly the nature of man to require human love that allows Dimmesdale to finally triumph the evil he suffers and confess at the final scaffold scene. The knowledge that he was loved in midst of all the suffering he had experienced allowed for an end to a close to the situation created by sin and all the evils that surrounded him and Hester. Hester Prynne andArthur Dimmesdale represented the human condition to turn to temptation; in this case it was against the Puritan community, making it necessary for the strife each Hester and Dimmesdale had for their redemption, bringing them ever so close together in their love. A romance is specifically defined as an emotional attraction or aura belonging to an especially heroic era, adventure, or activity (Ã¢â¬Å"RomanceÃ¢â¬ ). Hester's and Dimmesdale's lov e for one another came to an apex through the struggle they faced together in their setting in Puritan society and the trials of the human condition it brought Marks 6 forth.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Do Managers Need to Develop Concrete Skills in the Political Analysis of Organizations - Essay Example As the discussion outlines the political analysis of the organization literally dissects the different mechanisms through which it takes care of the deliverables that essentially emanate from the organizational stronghold, and for the sake of the common men and women on the street. The managers need to find the best possible ways through which they can present the alleviated stance of the organization. This is done so that the organization understands the needs and requirements of the public, for which it exists in essence. The managers act as the representatives of the organization and hence the face of its varied business entities. Whatever these managers do in the long run signifies the very basis of growth and development, for the sake of the organization. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s political position is thus dependent on the way these managers present the real picture as well as give a charter for the things to shape up in the future. This paper discusses the implications of the manag ers as they develop the required skills within the political analyses of the organizational values and principles. From this paper, it is clear that first it is found out as to why the political analysis of the organization is deemed as significant in the time and age of today. The reason for this is that the political analysis gives a good measure of the strengths that exist within the organization and the opportunities that it could touch upon in the future. It can also establish its very basis within the industrial domains and tell the relevant players in the industry that this organization means business just like them. It can easily outline the areas where the organization wishes to emphasize these strengths and create the much-needed difference. So basically what this political analysis does is to create a clear-cut basis for the organization, both from a short-term perspective as well as in the long run scheme of things.
Friday, September 27, 2019
The Role of the Mother Tongue in Second Language Learning - Essay Example The impact of the first language on the second language can bring problems especially in intercultural communication where the speakers use a lingua franca such as English or another language, hence causing misunderstandings and problems in communication. This research argues that contemporary linguistic theory demonstrates that primary language interference necessitates that second language instructor increasingly explore bilingual instructional strategies for teaching second language acquisition. The second language is any language that a person learns in addition to his/her first language. The term can also be used to refer to learning a third, fourth and subsequent languages. Second language acquisition is, therefore, the process by which people or learners study that language. The majority of linguists agree that errors made by second language learners originate from the speech of their first language. This occurs as a result of the influence of language transfer from the first language. The errors are mostly lexical or phonological. Still, the traditional approach to second language instruction has rigidly kept first and second languages rigidly separate. While instruction methods may be appropriate to keep a separate area for each language, linguistic theory demonstrates that bilingual instruction strategies are necessary. Rather than language learning existing in a vacuum, the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ mother tongue influences the way the second language vocabulary is learned and recalled for use. Learners at their disposal compensate their lack of knowledge by constructing difficult lexical items that are characterized by errors emanating from their first language. How the mother tongue helps or hinders learning is dependent on language distance, that is, the learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the second language. Of course, there are also external aspects to language acquisition. Breen (135) and Prabhu (158) note that language is a social phenomenon. Most people seek to learn a languageÃ to dialogue with the target language speakers and participate in their institutions.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Describe the period of Globalization in international economic management - Essay Example International Monetary System was formed to overcome the imbalances in economies arising from globalization. The new system took into account the international trade imbalances, investment, finance, and exchange markets. The international monetary system also took into account the imbalances in international payments which as a result of globalization were settled through financing, changing domestic economic policies, rationing exchange controls, and changes in currency exchange rate. The management of International Monetary System was difficult because it needed full international cooperation which was politically impossible. For the management of the system, the economies agreed on using a set of policies. For instance, mix of adjustment mechanisms were developed such as floating exchange rates or linking currencies to dollar under fixed exchange rate. Many political and economic crises arose in the midst of globalization. Reformation of International Monetary System was required. Many countries relaxed controls, opened domestic markets and removed regulatory barriers. As a result, financial markets became integrated into one global market influencing floating exchange rate system making it the central part of the new monetary system. Such an exchange rate could provide effective account adjustments by increasing exports and lowering imports and thus creating a trade balance. Many new treaties and pacts were made within countries as well as amongst others. For instance, the United States-Japan Enhanced Initiative on Deregulation and Competition Policy for Framework was signed to reduce trade deficits between US and Japan. The European Union introduced a single currency known as Euro under the Economic and Monetary Union had significant impact on the currency exchange transactions. In addition, almost all countries set up private banks, made the more central banks more independent, liberalized their financial systems and also joined the IMF
Assess to Assessing - Essay Example Apparently, there is a huge difference between an individual who is geographically literate and one who is not. For instance, a person who is geographically literate is able to understand the issues surrounding particular communities, their location, the way of life of the members from such communities and how such communities have affected the lives of other communities around them (Backler, 1988). Geographically literate individuals are also more capable of understanding the relationships between complex elements, such as humans and places, and such knowledge about the two allows them to be able to explain the changes and the consistencies in their characteristics. Moreover, a geographically literate individual is more likely to be able to solve more problems than someone who is not, and the ability to be able to do so is one that affects future decisions that would be made. The subject itself is one that is practical for an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday use, and it not only adds to our understanding about the world, but also allows us to appreciate the different elements that make up the world (Backler, A. 1988). In the United Kingdom, Ã¢â¬Å"the external examination of school Geography has undergone a dramatic process of bureaucratization since the 1970s, changing from a Ã¢â¬Ëbroad viewÃ¢â¬â¢ characterized by the exercise of professional judgement and agreement on standards between Chief Examiners and teachers, to a Ã¢â¬Ënarrow viewÃ¢â¬â¢ dominated by technical specifications, traditional content and fragmented subject knowledge. The overall outcome is a chasm between examiners and teachers in as much as the former give the latter little scope to develop creative approaches. Curriculum development considerations were cast aside as most public examination awarding bodies, pressurized to comply with new regulations at short notice and dependent on the goodwill of a casual workforce.Ã¢â¬ (pp. 670-671, Winter, 2009). In a study conducted by Caitling (2004), some
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Punishment - Term Paper Example They can be fined, incarcerated or sentenced to death for the gravest offences in some countries such as the US, Japan, China and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia among others. Corporal punishment is applied by teachers and parents in schools and in the family setting to encourage good behavior among children. The issue of punishment usually raises concerns in regard to the different understanding and application of punishment across different spheres in the society. Contentions arise in trying to determine the standards for determining the severity of a moral violation, and the punishment that fits it. This paper presents a critique of the moral principles that might be used to determine the match between moral violation and punishment. Hart postulated some elements that may be used to justify punishment. For example, he argues that the punishment has to be for an offence that is contrary to the set of laws in a particular state and also has to be enforced and undertaken by an authority that is defined by a legal system, which the offender is in breach of (qtd. in Sverdlik, 180). This indicates that the punishment should only be based on particular rules that have been set and therefore punishment for offences that are beyond the legally known rules is not justifiable. This argument leaves teachers and parents in a position whereby they are not justified in regard to the punishments that they give to children. They punish the children depending on their perception regarding what is right or wrong. The appropriateness of the punishment is usually not clear and the legality of punishments in schools as well as at home is disputable. The same case applies in the punishments meted out on individuals who engage in antis ocial behaviors in the society. For instance, mob justice is one of the punishments that the public resorts to after catching a suspected criminal. The punishment that
Monday, September 23, 2019
Multi Media buy Rationale - Essay Example Each medium had a budget of $214,000 for April, giving a total of $642,000. During the months of May and June, each had a budget of $143,000 giving a total of $429,000. This gives a total budget of $1,500,000. Tactics for Magazines: The MNI networks for the different packages are presented below, with their respective median age, female % and median HHI. It was concluded from the tables that female population played a big role in these magazines. The Ad Size of these magazines was full page, full colors were used to design their pages. According to the budget and calculations, it was concluded that the magazines to be included in the April budget were: Beauty, Style&Design, Family, Healthy Living, Luxury and Entertainment. The magazines to be included in the May and June budget were Beauty, Style&Design, Family and Healthy Living. The Weekly Broadcast TV Expenditures are shown in the table below. Most of the budget goes to the prime day time. For the introductory period (April), the Net budget per week was $53,500 and the Gross budget per week was $62,943. For the Sustaining period (May & June) the Net budget per week was $31,778 and the Gross budget per week was $37,387. April had 36 spots per week, consuming $59,760 from the April gross weekly budget. The sustaining period of May and June had 22 spots per week, consuming a total of $33,200 from the gross weekly
Sunday, September 22, 2019
International Business - Essay Example The operating systems under the software segment include Mac OS and other productivity and utility applications like I-work, Quick time player, and logic studio among others (Apple, 2013b). Apple is considered as one of the best software firms in terms of creativity and innovation. The company mainly distributes its services and product through retailers, whole sellers and exclusive Apple owned stores. Hewlett Packard, Dell, Google and Blackberry are the direct competitors of the company (NASDAQ, 2012). The current business environment is extremely volatile and changing. In order to thrive and survive in this competitive environment, companies will have to monitor and analyses the external as well as internal environment conditions before taking any business decision. Company philosophy Apple runs on the philosophy of creativity and premium (Simoes, 2001). Even though other companies are trying to cut down costs in order to increase sales and volume growth, Apple continues to price p roducts in the premium category. The company has established a loyal base of customers. Design and technology have always been the pillars of success for Apple. The other major marketing philosophy surrounding Apple is empathy, focus and Impute. Together, they provide a breakthrough competitive advantage to the company with respect to customer preference and market knowledge (Ghodeswar, 2008). Empathy concerns with understanding the exact needs to the customers (Witcher and Chau, 2010). The company has successfully embedded this philosophy with extensive research and evaluating the future trends and demands of the ever evolving customer. The second philosophy is focusing on only what is important and is necessary and removing all unimportant things from the activity plan. This increases the employee efficiency and overall productivity. The third philosophy is imputing which means that public and consumer form an opinion about the company. Thus, Apple makes sure that the image of the company is clean and balanced. External environment analysis PEST analysis will be helpful in evaluating the external environment of Apple. Political More than 50 percent of revenue of Apple comes from international markets. Thus, any change in the political scenario in the major international market will be crucial in overall growth of the organization. Economical The global economic crisis has impacted the company in an adverse way. With the high inflation rate and rising unemployment, consumers have shifted to saving mode. This has impacted the overall business of Apple, as most of its products are categorized as luxury and premium range. Fluctuating values of US dollars have also impacted the organization. Social The two major factors which have always been the forefront of Apple were designing and creativity. With the increasing disposable income, people are more attracted towards creative gadgets and technology (Beri, 2007). Apple has understood this market sentiment and cont inues to design innovative and user-friendly technology for the masses. Technological Apple throws in a large chunk of its revenue into product development and research phases. The sole purpose of this is to come out with new and innovative technology which provides competitive advantage to Apple. Opportunities and challenges An understanding of the current opportunities and
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Russia, 1905 1917, The Causes of Revolutionary Change Essay Q3. Using your knowledge of the events of 1917 (March November) explain how the Bolsheviks were able to take over the government in November. The Bolsheviks were able to take over the Government in November 1917 by exploiting the mistakes made by the Provisional Government, their unique ideology, Lenins policies and propaganda, and an element of luck. These were the main factors for their seizure of power, but other factors combined together to allow the Bolsheviks to complete their objective. The Bolsheviks seized power, because they had a unique ideology. Their ideology was that a revolution had to be created, instead of just waiting for it to happen. They thought that they had to lead from the front. The Social Revolutionaries were unable to lead a revolution as they were too sparsely spread out across Russia, which is a vast country. The Mensheviks thought that a revolution would spontaneously occur as a larger proportion of the population urbanised. The truth is that this would never happen in the near future, because currently only about nine or ten percent of the population inhabited the cities. The other ninety percent were peasants who lived deep in the countryside. Lenin, a previous political exile knew that this degree of urbanisation would never happen, as Russia was too vast a country, and didnt have a transport system that was capable of allowing people from the countryside to come to the cities. Another unique idea that the Bolsheviks had was that they were the only party that wanted to end the war, while the rest of the parties (the Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries) wanted to continue with the war effort. The majority of Russians thought that the war was also a bad idea, as it intensified the problems that were facing Russia at that time, such as starvation in the cities, terrible urban working conditions and the lack of land owned by the peasants. The war had caused these problems, and the continuation of the war did not remedy the situation. Plus the war was going badly, as the Russian army was able to put up some resistance against the Austrians, but suffered repetitive defeats at the hands of the Germans. The Bolsheviks unique ideology was therefore a very significant factor, as if they had not led from the front, a revolution would have never happened, and the All Russian Congress of Soviets wouldve been the legal ruling body of Russia. Another reason why the Bolsheviks took over the government in November 1917 was because of Lenins unique policies and propaganda. The Bolsheviks grew from a small insignificant party since the split of the Social Democrats in the London Conference, to dominate the Petrograd Soviet by November 1917. Lenin said that if the Bolsheviks gained power, then he would provide Peace, land and bread. This single phrase offered something that would make everyone happy. He promised peace, an end to the war, which was something that the majority of Russians wanted. The peace would allow the army to come home to their families. Peace was such a unique policy, as the Bolsheviks were the only party to offer it. The rest of the now legal political parties wanted to carry on with the war effort, even after they had seen that it had caused so much strife. He also offered land, something that was desired by nearly ninety percent of the population, the peasants. Before the peasants were forced to farm the common land of their village, or Mir, but Lenin offered that they would have their own land, something that they could own for themselves. And lastly, but not at all least was that he offered bread to the people. He offered a cure to starvation, which had plagued the cities, starving the umpteen number of urban workers, who had already been working longer hours to provide equipment for the front. Lenin said and promised things that he never planned on carrying out, but simply used them to win the support of people. The best example of this was when he came back from exile and stepped off the Sealed Train, he then said All power to the Soviets! In April 1917 but he did not mean this, but used it as a political tool to provoke peoples thoughts, and was very effective propaganda. He also used other slogans such as the one mentioned above to stimulate the Russian publics minds, and to gain their support. Lenin also managed to seize power in November 1917, because of his impeccable timing. Lenin was offered to lead the revolution during the July Days, but at that time he would have been taking power for the Soviets, including the Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. Lenin refused to take power at this time, but he didnt know for sure if he would have another opportunity to regain power. This risky move paid off later, as later on a Russian general (Kornilov) who was fighting on the front thought that the Provisional Government was weak, and he sought to re-introduce the Tsarist system. The leader of the Provisional Government (Alexander Kerensky) thought that Kornilovs army was finally going to overthrow the Provisional Government. He turned to Lenin and said that he would give him all the weapons of Petrograd if he would protect the city from the oncoming troops. Lenin accepted this plea and the private army of the Bolsheviks (the Red Guard) was given Petrograds weapons. On the 27th of August Kornilov marches his troops from the front towards Petrograd. When Kornilovs troops reach Petrograd, army discipline collapses and they abandon Kornilov to join the Red Guard. Now the Red Guard has the weapons of Petrograd, and an extended army due to the mutineers. The Provisional Government had made a huge mistake. They had given not only some, but all the weapons of Petrograd to the Red Guard leaving themselves defenceless. After Lenin had control of weapons, which were supplied to him by the Provisional Government, and an army that had rapidly gained support from the public and mutineers. He now had all the correct tools, which he needed for a job that he had masterminded: to take control of Russia legitimately. Now, he had time on his side, so he waited for the correct time to take control. The day he took control finally fell on the 6th November 1917, because that was the day before the All Russian Congress of Soviets was to meet. Due to his impeccable timing, he was able to take control before this meeting, which was to decide the fate of the Russian political system; therefore he was able to claim legitimacy. This showed that Lenin was very astute, as he had had chances to try and win power before, but he did not opt for that option, but waited until circumstances to his liking, and took advantages of them, resulting in the Bolshevik party ruling Russian headed by himself. The reason why the Bolsheviks took power in November 1917 was because they exploited the mistakes that had been made by the Provisional Government. The Provisional Government did not listen to what the people wanted, while Lenin told them what they wanted to hear, and subsequently won their support. The Provisional Government relaxed the censorship law, and therefore allowed new influential ideas to spread. This factor combined with the legalisation of political parties meant that these new ideas were large parts of the policies that the newly legalised parties used to try and gain support. The re-entry of political exiles into the country, such as Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin were all major mistakes, which Lenin in particular exploited as he stimulated the way people thought about the revolution that had recently occurred, and made them think if anything had actually changed. Once people had thought about that question, they realised that nothing had actually changed: there was still starvation in the cities, the peasants had no land, working conditions hadnt improved, but had worsened, inflation was still a major problem and the common people of Russia (the peasants and urban workers) were still denied a say. A factor that contributed to the Bolsheviks taking power in November 1917 was something that could not be controlled: luck. Lenin and the Bolsheviks by far did not have a perfect plan on how to take power. They were lucky on three prominent occasions. The first was that Lenin decided not to seize power in July shortly after the July Days riots that took place in the major cities of Russia. The people asked him to lead the way to a fresh revolution as he called it, but he refused, as at that time the Bolshevik party was still a very small minority in the Petrograd Soviet (which was the most influential Soviet in Russia), as he would be taking power for the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries. This refusion of power at that time was very risky tactics by Lenin, as he didnt know if he would have another chance to try and take power again in the future. The second prominent example of luck was the taking place of Kornilovs Revolt. Kornilov was a general who was fighting on the front. He was a keen supporter of the Tsar and the Tsarist system in the whole, and thought that the Provisional Government was doing a bad job of ruling over Russia. He thought that if he could get rid of the Provisional Government somehow, then the Tsar might be re-instated as the rightful leader of Russia. Kornilov planned to March his army to Petrograd and retake power by forceful means if necessary. When the Provisional Government heard about his plans, they began to panic, as they had never faced a situation remotely similar to this in the past. As they had no force of their own present in Petrograd at that time, they turned to Lenin to see if he and his personal army made up of Bolsheviks (the Red Guard) would protect Petrograd from the oncoming army. The Provisional Government said that they would give all the weapons of Petrograd to the Red Guard if they would protect the capital. Lenin jumped at this opportunity when it arose, as he knew that the Provisional Government were making a huge mistake. When Kornilovs army did reach Petrograd, they mutinied and joined the Red Guard. Now the Red Guard had the weapons of Petrograd, and were firmly in control of the situation. This was pure luck by the Bolsheviks, as they did not know if Kornilov was going to revolt in the future when Lenin refused power previously in July, but by chance the circumstances became favourable for him. From the evidence I have given, I conclude that the Bolsheviks were able to take over from the Provisional Government in November 1917, because they had had a great leader in the form of Lenin, who had impeccable timing, motivating policies and propaganda and a unique ideology of what to do with Russia. They were also able to exploit the mistakes made by the Provisional Government, and an element of luck had play in their seizure of power. The Bolsheviks unique ideology was that they should end the war, while the rest of the newly formed political parties wanted to carry on with the war effort for the same reasons as the Provisional Government did, and that was because they didnt want to be seen as cowards. The Bolsheviks knew what the people wanted, and stimulated them accordingly with the use of some crowd-pleasing policies and propaganda. The Bolsheviks leader Lenins astute timing of the day to seize power, the day prior to the meeting of the All Russian Congress of Soviets. Luck did have a part to play in this seizure of power, and without it, the All Russian Congress of Soviets would probably have become the legitimate controlling body of Russia, but circumstances played into the hands of the Bolsheviks. The aggressive political tactics of the Bolsheviks: the idea that you had to go out and create a revolution did eventually pay off, as if they had done what the Mensheviks had done, then the revolution would never have taken place, and Russia would be ruled by another body. The prime reason for success was the masterminding and swaying of public thought, courtesy of the Bolshevik leader, Lenin.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Strategies to Produce Thermonuclear Plasmas Elrica Degirmen What is the Joint European Torus and how does it work? The Joint European Torus, or JET, is a physics facility located in the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy in Oxfordshire. Plasma physicists and engineers there are producing thermonuclear plasmas under magnetic confinement in order to show that fusion energy is a reliable source of energy in the future. It is very difficult to do on earth as in order for nuclear fusion to happen temperatures millions of degrees above the core of the Sun must be achieved as it is impossible to gravitationally confine the plasma (CEA, 2001) which is the way it happens in stars. A plasma is defined as a quasi-neutral ionised gas, and because it is charged, it can be manipulated by electric and magnetic fields (Suplee, 2009). The History of the Joint European Torus JETÃ¢â¬â¢s history started in 1970 when the Council of the European Community decided to embark on a fusion research programme and build a European fusion device. After three years in 1973, the designs of JET were being drawn up and in 1977 the Culham site was chosen to build JET and construction work began. It then started operation in 1983 (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 2012). The 9th of November 1991 is a particularly important date in the history of nuclear fusion as this was when the Preliminary Tritium Experiment Ã¢â¬Å"achieved the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s first controlled release of fusion powerÃ¢â¬ (ITER Organization, 2014). What is nuclear fusion? Nuclear fusion is what powers the sun and it involves two nuclei fusing together under extreme temperatures and pressures. When this reaction occurs, energy is released from EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s energy-mass equivalence equation This is because the sum of the masses of the individual nucleons before fusing is greater than the sum of the masses of the nuclei when they have fused. This leads to a mass defect and due to the conservation of energy; a loss in mass is compensated through the release of energy. With regards to nuclear fusion, a lot of energy is released, especially when compared with nuclear fission. We can compare the energy outputs of both nuclear processes through the concept of binding energy. Binding energy is the amount of energy needed to either remove each nucleon from each other within the nucleus or the energy needed to fuse the same number of nucleons to form the nucleus of an atom. Looking at the binding energy per nucleon for the elements, we can see which are the most stable elements (they have the highest binding energy per nucleon) and see which processes (fission or fusion) releases the most energy. It should be noted that the mechanism for nuclear fusion in stars is different compared to achieving nuclear fusion on earth. In stars, the hydrogen atoms are fused together due to the extreme pressures as there is such a large quantity of stellar material. An example of one of the main nuclear cycles that take place in stars is the Proton-Proton Chain which happens in stars with the same mass as our Sun or less (The University of Tennessee). The main reaction is the first step where it converts hydrogen and deuterium into helium and emits a gamma ray as follows: (Case Western Reserve University) These pressures, as well as the high temperatures, and the effects of gravitational confinement means that the hydrogen atoms, which would normally repel one another due to their positive charges at the centres of their nuclei, are able to overcome the Coulomb barrier, and therefore the strong force is able to attract these nuclei together releasing vast amounts of energy and producing helium in the first place. The Coulomb barrier is the energy that is needed for the electrical repulsion to be overcome in order for the strong nuclear force to take place in order for the nuclei to fuse together (HyperPhysics). Here on earth, it is impossible to gravitationally confine large amounts of plasma, therefore physicists have developed two main methods for achieving nuclear fusion (for the purposes of civilian energy): inertial confinement and magnetic confinement (CEA, 2001). Another facility, the National Ignition Facility in Livermore, California uses inertial confinement and this involves the use of lasers. However, JET is concerned with magnetic confinement and, as the name suggests, it involves magnets with a reactor shaped as a torus or as a hollow doughnut. The Russian physicist Andrei Sakharov first came up with the idea of a tokamak as it was considered the most optimal shape to successfully confine a plasma using magnetic fields. In terms of magnetic confinement, for nuclear fusion to occur (this is called ignition); three main properties of the plasma must fulfil certain conditions. This is named the Lawson criterion after it was first proposed by John D. Lawson in 1955. The Lawson criterion states that the Ã¢â¬Å"triple productÃ¢â¬ of plasma density, confinement time, and the plasma temperature must fulfil this equation for a deuterium-tritium reaction: (Irvine, 2011) Where is the plasma density, is the plasma temperature and is the confinement time. Although a lot of energy is needed to overcome the Coulomb barrier and initiate the fusion process, the large energy yield is the reason why research at JET and at other institutes is still ongoing (HyperPhysics). The most common fusion reaction to be studied nowadays and the one that physicists at JET are looking into particularly is the deuterium-tritium, or D-T, reaction. Deuterium and tritium are isotopes of hydrogen. It is as follows: (HyperPhysics) Plasma heating Within the tokamak, the plasma current is induced by a transformer. The central iron transformer core acts as the primary winding, and this is situated in the hole of the tokamak reactor, and the plasma acts as the secondary winding. The plasma can act as a secondary winding because it is electrically-charged and therefore acts as a conductor. The alternating current that is supplied to the central magnetic coil induces a changing magnetic field and this is used to control the plasma. This produces a heating effect called Ohmic heating. Thus induced current causes heating which also happens in conventional transformers as well. Neutral-beam injection involves the introducing high-energy atoms into the magnetically-confined plasma when it is already ohmically heated. These atoms are ionised as they pass through the plasma and therefore are also controlled by the magnetic field present. They then become high-energy ions and as a result, they transfer some of their energy to the plasma particles in repeated collisions. This increase in the number of collisions increases the average translational kinetic energy associated with these ions and thus increases the temperature of the plasma overall. Furthermore, radio frequency heating is also used to heat the plasma. This is generated through induction high-frequency oscillating currents in the plasma by external coils. There are parts of the plasma where the energy absorption is high and the frequencies are chosen to match the frequencies of these regions. This is called resonance and it allows large amounts of power to be transferred to the plasma. All of these ways of heating the plasma are important as not one single method can produce the necessary temperatures of 100 million degrees Celsius (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 2012), which is required in magnetic confinement (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, 2012). Confining the plasma The main purpose of the tokamak in JET is to magnetically confine the plasma with the help of the device called a Ã¢â¬Å"tokamakÃ¢â¬ which is a Russian acronym for a torus-shaped magnetic chamber (European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion for Energy), 2013). In order to successfully confine the plasma, the magnetic field lines must move around the torus in a helical shape generated by toroidal and poloidal fields. The diagram above is useful in explaining two key concepts in plasma physics: the toroidal field and the poloidal field. The toroidal field is represented by the blue line and it is the magnetic field that travels around the torus in circles. The poloidal field is represented by the red arrow and it travels in circles perpendicular to the toroidal field. Both of these fields differ in the way they are produced as well in their direction of travel. The toroidal field is produced by electromagnets which surround the torus, and the poloidal field is generated as a result of the toroidal electric current that follows inside the plasma with the help of a second set of electromagnets (Wikipedia, 2014). Energy production At the moment, JET can only produce around 70% of the power needed to heat the plasma in the first place (MlynÃ ¡Ãâ¦Ã¢â ¢, 2007). However, a new tokamak called ITER is being built in Cadarache and developed in order to develop the technologies and obtain the knowledge necessary to built fusion power stations capable of producing more energy out than in (European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion for Energy), 2013). Energy production from fusion is a promising idea as a fusion reaction, in comparison to the combustion of fossil fuels, is four times more energetic, thus more energy can be produced from very small quantities of deuterium and tritium (ITER Organization, 2014). In practical terms, in order to produce 1000MW of electricity, 2.4 million tonnes of coal would be needed each year for a coal-fired power station, however only 125kg each of deuterium and tritium per year would be needed to produce the same amount of energy (ITER Organization, 2014). The future From the research conducted at JET, it was apparent to physicists that a bigger tokamak must be built in order to break-even and hopefully obtain a greater energy output than input. To reiterate, this tokamak is known as ITER and is currently built in the south of France. Even then, ITER is not being built specifically for energy production and it is only until DEMO will be built that it can be demonstrated to the world that it is possible to harness the power of nuclear fusion on energy. DEMO is expected to be running sometime during the 2030s and an actual fusion power plant to be running by 2050 (EFDA, 2014). However, due to inevitable geopolitical issues and financial constraints, there is every possibility that these dates may be pushed forward into the future. Even so it was in 1905 when Einstein first formulated the mass-energy equivalence relation, it was in 1920 when Eddington first discovered how stars produced energy, it was in 1927 when Langmuir gave Ã¢â¬Å"plasmaÃ¢â¬ its name and thus plasma physics was born (MlynÃ ¡Ãâ¦Ã¢â ¢, 2007); and there have been many other milestones within plasma physics since then that even if the dates fusion civilian energy is pushed forward by a couple of decades or more it will not mean anything in the long term as man will finally be able to Ã¢â¬Å"learn how to release it and use it for his serviceÃ¢â¬ as Eddington said. Irrespective of when the production of fusion energy will occur, JET will have been a cornerstone in the history of fusion energy and plasma physics as experiments at JET have made us closer and closer to ignition. The next step is to build the next series of tokamaks and finally the fusion power plant. Works Cited Case Western Reserve University. (n.d.). The Proton-Proton Chain. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from http://burro.cwru.edu/Academics/Astr221/StarPhys/ppchain.html CEA. (2001). Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://www-fusion-magnetique.cea.fr/gb/fusion/principes/principes02.htm EFDA. (2014). Fusion. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from http://www.efda.org/fusion/ European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion for Energy). (2013). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/faq/#a7 European Joint Undertaking for ITER and the Development of Fusion Energy (Fusion for Energy). (2013). What is Fusion? Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/understandingfusion/ HyperPhysics. (n.d.). Coulomb Barrier for Fusion. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/coubar.html HyperPhysics. (n.d.). Nuclear Fusion. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/nucene/fusion.html Irvine, M. (2011). Nuclear Power: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. ITER Organization. (2014). Fueling the Fusion Reaction. Retrieved January 17, 2014, from http://www.iter.org/sci/fusionfuels ITER Organization. (2014). Progress in Fusion. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://www.iter.org/sci/beyonditer MlynÃ ¡Ãâ¦Ã¢â ¢, J. (2007). Focus On: JET. Prague: Association EURATOM-IPP.CR. Suplee, C. (2009). The Plasma Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The University of Tennessee. (n.d.). The Proton-Proton Chain. Retrieved January 18, 2014, from http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/energy/ppchain.html United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. (2012). JET. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://www.ccfe.ac.uk/JET.aspx United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. (2012). The Tokamak. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://www.ccfe.ac.uk/Tokamak.aspx Wikipedia. (2014). Tokamak. Retrieved January 16, 2014, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tokamak
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Oedipus the King and MasonÃ¢â¬â¢s ShilohÃ Ã Ã Ã "Shiloh," written by Bobbie Ann Mason, and Oedipus the King, written by Sophocles, contain extremely different story lines but jointly have one unique quality, the role of the woman. In each of these stories, the females struggle to overcome one major obstacle plaguing them by using their inner-strength. Norma Jean from "Shiloh" fights to leave a seemingly endless marriage, and Jocasta from Oedipus the King struggles against an ill-fate. Norma Jean and Jocasta believe that they are strong enough to conquer these challenges, but, in the end, they both realize they are not strong enough and commit suicide because of this defeat. Norma Jean and Jocasta strive to beat the one main obstacle placed before each of them; Norma Jean fights against marriage, and Jocasta struggles against fate. In "Shiloh," Norma Jean is married to a man with which she cannot live anymore. By strengthening herself mentally and physically, Norma Jean believes that she can leave her husband, Leroy. In preparation for the day when Norma Jean will leave Leroy, she takes a body-building and English composition class. After working out one day Norma Jean explains to Leroy, "I'd give anything if I could just get these muscles to where they're real hard" (491). Strengthening the mind and body is the only way Norma Jean knows to build her self-esteem and prepare herself for this day that will soon be upon her. On the other hand, Jocasta has always been a mentally strong woman. Jocasta's battle is against something much more severe than a bad marriage; she battles fate. When Jocasta first had her baby, Oedipus, an oracle declared to Jocasta th at "doom would strike him[Laius] down at the hands of a son, / our son, to... ...r too overwhelming for her. Once again the woman was not strong enough to overcome life's many challenges. How does one know if he or she has enough strength? In both of these stories, the women try to battle life using inner-strength. Even though Norma Jean and Jocasta are under extremely different circumstances, both make the same ultimate decision, death. Whether or not death was the right choice, this choice was made by both characters. Their strength was not enough to surpass the problems of life. Works Cited Mason, Bobbie Ann. "Shiloh." Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Sixth edition. Eds. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. New York: Harper Collins, 1995. Sophocles. Oedipus the King. Discovering Literature: Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Eds. Hans P. Guth and Gabriele L. Rico. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1993. Ã Ã
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Women as a Minority Group Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Women have been discriminated against since the beginning of time, as early as the first people, Adam and Eve. Eve was called the evil one, who ate fruit from the tree of knowledge. Once she had the knowledge to know right from wrong, she chose to do wrong and give the fruit to Adam. Examples like these can be shown all over history books, in stories, tales and legends across the entire world. Women have been subordinate to men in virtually all societies throughout history. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The ideology that one sex is superior to the other is called sexism. The presumption of male sexism led to patterns of prejudice and discrimination against women. These prejudices and discriminations have led to many beliefs or ideas of why women are inferior to men. They range from brain size to sexual differences, including personalities based on genitalia. Cross-cultural studies demonstrate how the socialization process and societal expectations of men and women produce variances in sex-role norms and behavior. As the realization of women as an exploited group increases, the similarity of their position to that of racial and ethnic groups becomes more apparent. Women are born into their sexual identity and are easily distinguished by physical and cultural characteristics. In addition, women now identify that they are all sufferers of an ideology (sexism) that tries to justify their inferior treatment. In all societies around the world, women are treated as if they are a minority group, just like any racial or ethnic group that is out of the norm. The justification for considering women as a minority group and the existence of sexism becomes clear through the examination of social indicators, including education, employment, and income. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Education was sex segregated for hundreds of years. Men and women went to different schools or were physically and academically separated into Ã¢â¬Å"coeducationalÃ¢â¬ schools. Males and females had separate classrooms, separate entrances, separate academic subjects, and separate expectations. Women were only taught the social graces and morals, and teaching women academic subjects was considered a waste of time. Even after these prejudices were overcome, the education system still maintained sexism in both obvious and subtle ways. Books rein... ...nses for maternity and family medical leaves. If a woman chooses motherhood, then she must lower her occupational goals and expectations. A woman with children will fall behind a childless woman in earnings, as the childless woman goes up the corporate ladder faster. Women will then risk career advancement by having children. Also, a working mother must not only juggle a family and a career, but she must find child-care as well. Child care costs are the major reason why most women end up just quitting their jobs. The majority of a working motherÃ¢â¬â¢s salary goes directly to the child care provider. If women were paid equal to men, more families may be able to pay for child care expenses and working mothers could continue to work and get ahead. Women have been treated unequally since the beginning of time. Just recently have things began to change for the better for women and the future of our society. The increase in womenÃ¢â¬â¢s equality rights will take time, but some day women and men will be treated equally. This cannot happen until each of us is able to look at a person and just see another individual, not a male or a female, white or black, rich or poorÃ¢â¬ ¦ a person as just a person.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
In The Working Poor, David Shipler relates the plight of the invisible poor in America, sharing the stories of laborers across the nation who work but cannot get a firm grip on the slippery surface of the American dream. Shipler also touches on, but does not fully explore, the even thornier path of the disabled, impoverished individual in America. Although a relatively large segment of the population (10-20 percent of the United States population is disabled), the disabled poor encounter setbacks in their struggle to succeed in a world where oneÃ¢â¬â¢s worth is often judged by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s economic and educational attainment. A blind and impoverished woman from Eastern Europe directly states that the disabled poor "depend on everyone; no one wants us. We are like garbage that everyone wants to get rid of" (Wolfensohn 1). Far from the thoughts of many in the social hierarchy, including the healthy working poor, the disabled poor face numerous obstacles in their path towards a stable income above the poverty line. Addressing the problem of helping disabled individuals through legislation becomes difficult because definitions of disability differ. Some may argue that depression is not a disability because not only is it difficult to prove that an individual is afflicted with it, but it is also questionable whether it is the cause of their unemployment. Asthma may not be considered a disability for a child in the suburbs, who, with the help of an inhaler, may play soccer without suffering, but chronic, untreated asthma can be debilitating for a child living in poverty and, according to the American Lung Association, Ã¢â¬Å"can be a life-threatening disease if not properly managed.Ã¢â¬ The government defines disability as having a Ã¢â¬Å"physical or m... ... > U.S. Census Bureau: American Fact Finder. Ã¢â¬Å"Sex by Age by Disability by Employment Status for the Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population 5 Years and Over.Ã¢â¬ ds_name=ACS_2003_EST_G00_&-redoLog=false&- mt_name=ACS_2003_EST_G2000_P059>. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Ã¢â¬Å"Child Health USA 2003Ã¢â¬ . . U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Ã¢â¬Å"Disability Among Women on AFDC: An Issue Revisited.Ã¢â¬ 1993. . U.S. Department of Labor. Ã¢â¬Å"The United States Department of Labor Homepage, Secretary of State Elaine L. Chao.Ã¢â¬ . The University of New Mexico Center for Development and Disability. .
Personal quote: Through economics, engineer the worldÃ¢â¬ ¦ ECONOMICS 232 BRAZIL- SA REPORT Introduction In 2010, South Africa joined The BRIC and set its level of ambition not only as an African leader, but also as an emerging world class economy along Russia, China, India and Brazil. This report will analyze and look at the economic trends and fluctuations between the later and South Africa from the year 2000 to 2010 using released World Bank data. AnalysisAccording to the World Bank, South Africa GDP was of about one hundred and thirty two billion in 2000 while BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s was at six hundred and forty four billion Dollars. Over the following decade 2000 Ã¢â¬â 2010, the two economies registered a considerable and equal improvement of their total production with a respective increase of 41 % for South Africa and 42% in the case of Brazil. The GDP per capita on the other hand increased at a lower rate over the same period. While South Africa leveled up by 22. 4%, Brazil bette red its GPD per capita by 25 . %. This further entails a GDP yearly increase of $ 1095 /capita with regards to the former, and $1409/capita for the later. A better look at aggregate expenditure components will provide more detailed resources in explaining the above increase of GDP within the two economies. In 2000, South Africa and Brazil consumption by households ( C ) was about 63% and 64% of GDP, largely above the rest of the components where total gross capital formation ( I ) lied low with 16% and 18% respectively, and lastly a total government expenditure ( G ) of 18 and 19%.As it appears, the two economies spent relatively equivalent proportions of their expenditure aggregate component on GDP. At the end of the decade,2010, total consumption ( C ) rose by 49 % for both economies, Investment ( I ) strongly incremented by 93% with regards to South Africa and 52% in the case of Brazil which correlated with a respective increase of 3. 17% and 45% increase in the money supply in b oth countries over the period.Parallel to the increase in GDP, the two economies registered noticeable increases of Gross Value Added ( VGA ). In fact, between 2000 and 2010, South Africa VGA increased by 38% while Brazil as usual experienced a little higher accretion of 41 %. Looking at sectorial contribution, tertiary sector imparted for more than half of total VGA in 2000 as illustrated by the graphs below. 1. 1 South Africa World Bank 2000 data analysis : Sectorial Contribution to VGA . 2 Brazil World Bank 2000 data analysis : Sectorial contribution to VGA In 2010, South Africa tertiary contribution to VGA only increased marginally by 3% and hence moved from 65% in 2000 to 68% in 2010 where it leveled up to BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s. Conversely, primary and secondary sector contribution deteriorated between 2000 and 2010 . The South African primary sector declined from 3% to 2% while the secondary also experienced a marginal decline of 3%.On that point, Brazil went through proportional ch anges with secondary sector falling from 28% to 25%, leaving the primary with a small yet surprising amelioration of its contribution from 5. 60% to 5. 86% . Graph 2. 1 and 2. 2 provide a more visual depiction of the above facts. 2. 1 South Africa World Bank 2010 data analysis : Sectorial contribution to VGA 2. 2. Brazil World Bank 2010 data analysis : Sectorial contribution to VGA Besides the above increase in VGA, another important factor to be onsidered is how the level of openness of both countries drastically evolved over the decade 2000 -2010. South Africa exports incremented by 13% while BrazilÃ¢â¬â¢s skyrocketed by 86%. This implies that Brazil opened to the rest of the world at a much higher level, local firms growing into world competitors, which not only appreciated the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency but increased its competiveness and decreased dependency on imported products. South Africa imports increased by 73% in contrast to Brazil which only increased by 21%.This high level of imports from South Africa will eventually result in the deterioration of the balance of payment. Moreover, while Brazil rate of unemployment oscillated between 6 and 9% over the decade, South Africa experienced a rather high rate of unemployment, the lowest in 2007 and 2008 with an average rate of 23% and the highest between 2002 and 2003 with an average of 31%. Conclusion This report deciphered and revealed an objective analysis of two BRICS economies, precisely South Africa and Brazil over ten years, 2000-2010. Erouane Langard 747 Words
Monday, September 16, 2019
1. Discuss three (3) different methods of effecting change. Use practical examples from your experience or knowledge, and describe your experience in implementing change. Change will not be effortlessly implemented without an implementation plan or a framework. Change is often implemented in order to resolve issues, concerns, or setbacks to make situations or conditions more desirable. (National Defense University, 2008) It must then follow a process, called research, in order to identify what changes are to be made and how changes are to be implemented. The initial step is to identify the problem or the issue that is to be resolved through change. Next, there should be sufficient background information that supports the pressing need for change. Then it is time to come up with several changes that are suited to solve the problem. Once the most important plan of change is determined, the question of how the change will be implemented should be answered. This includes the plan of action, rules and regulations, etc. Overall, the implementation plan abovementioned solidifies the need to implement change, and becomes a guide to direct an organization in realizing its goals by lessening confusion and ambiguity. Another method to effect change is to involve everyone concerned. In this way, individuals easily accept and adapt to the changes lessening pressure, stress, confusion, and chaos. Moreover, information circulated for everyone involved should be clear, extensive, flexible, and reasonable. For instance, there is a need to revamp the structure of organization through reappointment. Therefore, laying out the reasons for such action is important. These reasons should be evenhanded and logical. Reappointing, hiring, or even laying off should also be reasonable and explicated to employees. The change should also be open to pleas and petitions from employees with consideration to accomplishments, position, character, etc. The entire process is most effectively done through a meeting, with the aid of a well-researched and written report containing all necessary information. (Actalpha, 2008) In this way, change in the structure of the organization, as an example, is unquestionable and easily accepted due to facts. Personally, being informed about future changes makes it easy to accept expected results and outcomes, and lessens fear, resistance and difficulties to implement changes. Lastly, it is most important to set rules to follow on how everyone is to observe the changes implemented. Consistency is vital in allowing effortless adaptation of changes and the facilitation of submission to these changes. Monitoring and supervision would assist in accomplishing this method of change management. (Caroll, 2008) 2. Why are most organizations and individuals resistant to change? What can managers do to facilitate change? As the saying goes, change is inevitable. Although organizations cannot avoid having to implement changes every now and then, its members are more often than not resistant to change. This is because change is accompanied by adjustment and undeterminable outcomes. For organizations, resistance to change is mainly caused by the fear of loss or defeat once changes are implemented. (Bacal, 2008) Organizations and its members are driven by success and the accomplishment or realization of organizational goals and objectives. The primary purpose of change is to improve organizational structure and atmosphere; however, there is always the fear of failure or a letdown if changes that are implemented backfires and does not prove to be sufficient nor appropriate to develop and redirect the organizational situation. To lessen these fears, ambiguity, or apprehensions regarding organizational changes, the manager should be able to utilize his command to facilitate change. As aforementioned in order to answer the previous question, managers should be able to assure the organization and its members that a change is necessary. Assessing all the aspects related to change is also needed. It is the most basic and the most important process in facilitating change. This is carried out through extensive research analysis, plan mapping, formulation of action plans or process maps, etc. These written reports and plans shall be distributed to everyone involved who will be affected by the planned changes to be implemented. Once information is distributed to the members of the organization, managers should conduct a training program or a seminar workshop to initiate a discussion about the issues related to the type of change, and to prepare members of the organization for changes in roles and responsibilities, rules and regulations, salary, etc. through training and workshop. (Southeast Association of Facilitators, 2007) After the training program or seminar workshop, the management is now able to implement the changes formally. At this point, rules and regulations should be observed strictly and consistently in order to sustain the transition from the old to the new working situation or environment.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Rudolfo A. Anaya, a New Mexican writer, is considered one of the creators of Chicano Literature. He is most known for his novel Bless Me, Ultima. He has been recognized with many prestigious rewards for his work. As Anaya says, Ã¢â¬Å"As a Chicano writer I am part of a community which for the first time in our contemporary era has produced enough literary works to create a literary movement. Prior to the 1960s western literature was written about us, but seldom by us. Now the world has a truer insight into our world; the view is now from within as more and more Chicano and Chicana writers explore their realityÃ¢â¬ (Rudolfo A(lfonso) Anaya Biography 1). Anaya was born on October 30, 1927 in the small village of Pastura, New Mexico (Anaya 363, Contemporary Hispanic Biography 1). He was born to Martin and Rafaelita Anaya. Anaya was the fifth of seven children. His father came from a family of cattle workers and sheepherders, was a vaquero, a horseman who worked on ranches surrounding Pastura, and his mother came from a family of poor farmers (Contemporary Hispanic Biography 1). At a young age, his family moved to Santa Rosa, New Mexico. Their house was perched over the Pecos River, and young Anaya spent his childhood roaming around the planes with his friends, hunting, and fishing in the Pecos River. He was raised in a strong Catholic household, he stated, Ã¢â¬Å"In my child hood world the power of prayer was supremeÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 362). Also, Anaya grew up in a Spanish speaking only house hold. He stated that his parents only mostly spoke Spanish and that at the age of six or seven when he started school he knew very little to no English (Anaya 362-365). My parents spoke only Spanish. My dad worked for big ranchers and he could buy and sell cattle, which meant he could get along in English. But at home it was a complete Spanish-speaking household. By the time I went to school when I was six or seven, I didn't know English, I only knew SpanishÃ¢â¬ (Stone). At the age of fifteen Anaya moved to Albuquerque, and he attended Albuquerque High School. In Albuqu erque Anaya was exposed to prejudice against Latinos as well as some cultural and ethnic differences he had not previously faced. Anaya played football and baseball in Albuquerque. He managed to avoid the trouble of gangs, and he kept good grades. (Anaya 364-366, Contemporary Hispanic Biography). At the age of sixteen Anaya suffered a diving accident. Diving into an irrigation ditch, Anaya broke two vertebrae; he nearly killed himself. Anaya said in his short auto biography, Ã¢â¬Å"The doctors would later explain that I had fractured two vertebrae in my neck, and I had gone into instant paralysis. I could not move a muscleÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 369). His mother nursed him through his paralysis with daily massaging the stiff limbs, and his friends never wavered. He swam, exercised, and slowly began to reenter the rough and tumble life. He mentions that one of the first things that he did was return to the YMCA pool alone. As a way to conquer his fear he dove into the water alone (Anaya 369-372). In 1956, Anaya graduated from Albuquerque High School. Anaya then attended business school for two years before dropping out and enrolling in the university. University life sent Anaya into an identity crisis. He speaks of losing his faith in god. Anaya found that the culture at the university was not his own; also, Anaya found that his classes were devoid of relevance to his own culture. On top of all this a recently failed relationship with a girl pushed Anaya to begin writing to help his pain. However, much of these early writings were later destroyed. Anaya thanks his friends for helping him survive the university. On weekends he would get with his friends and go out drinking, playing pool, and meeting girls. Anaya received a degree and soon after accepted a teaching position in a small town in New Mexico. (Anaya 373-375). In this small town he still continued to practice his writing everyday (Contemporary Hispanic Biography ). He married a young woman named Patricia Lawless. Patricia, from Kansas, provided him with encouragement, and Patricia would read his work and respond to its weaknesses (Anaya 374, Contemporary Hispanic Biography). Marriage provided Anaya with a stable base for which to write; although, two miscarriages were the most difficult experiences of his married life. Through this stable base Bless me, Ultima was born. He would teach by the day, and he would come home at night to write. Anaya 376) Anaya says that his inspiration for Bless Me, Ultima came when he had a vision of an elderly woman dressed in black standing in his room, and it was this vision that inspired him to start writing the novel (Contemporary Hispanic Biography). In AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å"One light was on, a desk light near the typewriter, I heard a noise and turned to see the old woman dressed in black enter th e roomÃ¢â¬ (Anaya, 377). Bless me, Ultima tells the story of Antonio Juan Marez y Luna, a six-year old boy growing up in rural New Mexico during World War II. Antonio is befriended by Ultima, a kindly curandera, or healer, who has come to stay with AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s family. Antonio discovers the mysteries of the plains surrounding him and learns how to use its plants for medicinal purposes. Ultima later cures curses placed on AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s uncle by a family of witches. Much of the drama or conflict in the novel developed because of this. (Contemporary Hispanic Biography). This story relates in many ways to AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s own history. Antonio, in the novel, is pulled between his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s wandering life as a vaquero and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s harmonic, grounded existence with the earth itself. He questions the validity of his Catholic faith that seems helpless against pain and suffering while UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢s magic heals. He discovers the golden carp in the river, which as told in local folklore, is a god. The idea that the carp may share divinity with God, to Antonio, feels like a betrayal of his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s faith. However, this is a question that he cannot help but to ask (Anaya; Bless Me, Ultima, Contemporary Hispanic Biography). Ã¢â¬Å"In my first novel, Bless Me, Ultima, I used the people and the environment of my childhood as elements of the story. Like my protagonist, Antonio, my first language was Spanish. I was shaped by the traditions and culture of the free-wheeling cow punchers and sheep herders of the llano, a lifestyle my father knew well, and was also initiated into the deeply religious, Catholic settled life of the farmers of Puerto de Luna, my mother's side of the family. Ã¢â¬Å"(Anaya 380) Anaya eventually was published by Berkeley. Although the path to getting published wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy, Ã¢â¬Å"I approached dozens of publishers, the result was always the same. I collected enough form letter rejections to wallpaper the proverbial room, but I was undauntedÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 379). Bless Me, Ultima was a huge success. Anaya won the prestigious Premio Quinto Sol Award for the novel. Anaya also received many other prestigious rewards for the novel. Such as, AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Bless Me, Ultima appeared on the Big Read site. The Big read is an initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts designed to revitalize the role of literary reading in American popular culture. There are 30 books selected every year for this site. AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Bless Me, Ultima was also chosen as one of the literary works to appear in the 2009 American Academic decathlon. The New York Times stated that the novel was, Ã¢â¬Å"probably the best-known and most respected contemporary Latino FictionÃ¢â¬ , and the San Francisco Chronicle said Bless Me, Ultima was a, Ã¢â¬Å"poignantÃ¢â¬ ¦ an important book that deserves to be hailed as a classicÃ¢â¬ (Bless Me Ultima to be flimed in New Mexico reports Gov. Bill Richardson, 3) A Bless Me, Ultima sculpture was even made at the north entrance to Park Lake off Historic Route 66 in Santa Rosa (Santa Rosa Dedicates Ã¢â¬ËBless Me, UltimaÃ¢â¬â¢ Rudolfo Anaya Sculpture Park, 4). A play was also made after AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Bless Me, Ultima, and has been shown all across New Mexico (Bless Me Ultima Ã¢â¬â The Play). Also, a movie was made after the novel. The film versions began Shooting in Santa Fe in October 2010 (Bless Me, Ultima' Film Based on Rudolfo Anaya's Novel Will Shoot in N. M. ). The director of the film is Carl Franklin, and the film is staring Bento Marinez, David Rees Snell, and Miriam Colon (Bless Me, Ultima article, 2). Overall, AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s Bless Me, Ultima has sold over 360,000 copies. (Rudolfo Anaya UNM Article, 3) AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s father owned a land grant that stretched for miles along the Rio Grande in AlbuquerqueÃ¢â¬â¢s south valley, and then for miles west into the desert as far as the Rio Puerco. This grant had been passed down from generation to generations. AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, as heir to the land grant, received and sold some lots that were part of the grant in the forties; on the other hand, AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, having that peasant Nuevo Mexicano instinct and love for the land, believed the grant was a source of our values (Anaya 382). As Anaya said, Ã¢â¬Å"she believed that someday we would all own a piece of that grant which had been handed down for generationsÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 382). However, the real history of the Spanish and Mexican land grants of New Mexico would prove her wrong. Most of the big land grants were stolen away from the true inheritors. Anaya says that is was these themes that lead him to create his second novel. The main character is Clemete Chavez, a farmer who loses his land at the start of the narrative and is forced to move into barrio in Albuquerque. While in the city, Chavez, and his family, they watch helplessly as their teenage children lose themselves in drugs violence, and sex. Chavez undertakes a soul-searching quest for an identity and a role for himself. As an attempt to provide a fictive analogue to the Chicano consciousness-raising efforts of the 1970s, the book ends with a Chicano march against the oppressive Santa Fe Railroad (Portales 2). Heart of Aztlan, was published in 1976. (Anaya 383) Anaya was invited to serve on the board of the Coordinating council of Literary Magazines (CCLM) in 1974. Their office was in New York. The council held regional workshops around the country twice a year and Anaya used this as a great way to meet different people in the writing community. Many of these friends would remain close friends with Anaya for life. (Anaya 380-385) During these years Anaya was working on Tortuga. Tortuga was the third novel in his series, and it was designed to loosely complete his trilogy (Contemporary Hispanic Biography). Tortuga was his hospital story, and thus he considered it a very difficult novel for him to write; however, many see it as one of his best novels, and it won the Before Columbus American Book award from the Before Columbus foundation for Tortuga in 1980 (Contemporary Hispanic Biography). It was loosely based on his own experience in a hospital, but it quickly became more than that. Ã¢â¬Å"The theme of healing still occupied my thoughts. How do people get well? I looked around and saw that we had created a society that was crushing and mutilating us. People were sick physically and spiritually. How could those people be helped? The hospital I created became an existential hell, symbolizing our own contemporary hellÃ¢â¬ ¦ In Tortuga I took my characters to the depths of despair and human suffering, and they find in their hellish existence the faith they need to survive in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 385). Anaya began to spend more time writing plays and learning the techniques of drama. Anaya wrote his first play in 1979, the Season of La Llorona, first produced in Albuquerque. The Farolitios of Christmas was produced in Albuquerque in 1987, Matachines was published in 1992, Ay, Compadre! was published in 1994, and Billy the Kid and Who Killed Don Jose was published in 1995. (Rudolfo A(lfonso) Anaya Biography) Anaya began working with and translating some old oral materials which had been collected by folklorist. This renewed his connection to that exciting and magical stream of oral tradition. Cuentos: Tales from the Hispanic Southwest was published in 1980 (Anaya 389, Rudolfo A(lfonso) Anaya Biography). In his free time he was also working on making short stories. Somewhere between writing novels he would squeeze out short stories. In 1982, The Silence of Llano (short stories) was published by Berkeley. The Legend of La Llorona was published in 1984, and was soon followed by Lord of the Dawn: The Legend of Quetzalcoatl. Anaya also wrote poems in his free time, The Adventures of Juan Chicaspatas was published by the Arte Publico Press in 1985. In 1986, A Chicano in China was ublished as a nonfiction account of AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s travels to China. Also, Anaya began to edit numerous publications (Anaya 389). When asked why he became a writer Anaya responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I became a writer in my childhood. That is why that time has been so important to me. The character of my childhood, the family, friends, and neighbors that make up my world, they and their lives fed my imaginat ionÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 375). In 1995, Anaya published his first murder mystery, Zia Summer; also in 1995, Anaya released his book Albuquerque, a good he considered to be a celebration of the city. Zia Summer was followed by rio Grande Fall in 1996, a continuation of his murder mystery series. In 1999, Anaya introduced Shaman Winter. Finally in 2005, Jemez Spring was introduced. Aside from writing, Anaya was a teacher. Anaya began teaching at junior high schools first, then at High schools throughout Albuquerque (Anaya 370). His first teaching position was in a small New Mexican town. Anaya, then, began to work as a public school teacher in Albuquerque from 1963 to 1970. He was appointed the Director of counseling of the University of Albuquerque in 1971. (Rudolfo A. Anaya, article) Then, in 1974, Anaya was offered a position at UNM to teach creative writing (Anaya 380). Anaya worked at UNM from 1974-1993 when he retired. (Rudolfo A. Anaya, article) As Anaya says on the topic of his retirement from UNM, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t view leaving the University of New Mexico and teaching as retirement. I view it more as the mid-career change, to do a lot of writing and other things, like reading. I want to do more essays. So I think itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a shift of energy into new areasÃ¢â¬ (Anaya, Dick, Sirias, 153). Anaya has received many awards and honors throughout his career. He was awarded the prestigious Premio Quinto Sol literary award for Bless Me, Ultima in 1970 (Anaya, 363). Anaya has been awarded the New Mexico GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Service Award twice, in 1978 and in 1980. The Before Columbus Book award was rewarded to him for Tortuga in 1980. (Contemporary Hispanic Biography) In 1982, Anaya received the Corporation for Public Broadcasting script development award for Rosa Linda (Biography of Rudolfo Anaya (1937-). He received the Award for Achievement in Chicano Literature from the Hispanic Caucus of Teachers of English in 1983. In a Salute to American Poets and Writers, Anaya was invited by President Jimmy Carter to read at the White House (Gonzales, 1). The PEN-West Fiction Award was awarded to Anaya in 1992 for Albuquerque (Biography of Rudolfo Anaya (1937). In 2002, Anaya was awarded the National Medal of Arts by President George Bush. He was one of the eight Americans receiving the award at Constitution Hall. Anaya received the award for his contribution to American literature that has brought recognition to the traditions of the Chicano people. Gonzales, 2) In 2003, Anaya was awarded the Outstanding Latino/a Cultural Award in Literary Arts or Publications (Biography of Rudolfo Anaya (1937). Since AnayaÃ¢â¬â¢s retirement from the UNM English department in 1993, he has dedicated his life to traveling, writing, and reading. He currently lives in Albuquerque with his wife, the same state where he was born (Rudolfo Anaya Author of Bless Me, Ultima Article). He has said that he has no desire to leave. Anay a is overall, one of the most successful and one of the most significant figures in the landscape of Chicano literature. Anaya says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ As a mestizo, a person born from these two broad streams (or more correctly, from many inheritances), I want to create a synthesis, a worldviewÃ¢â¬ (Rudolfo A(lfonso) Anaya Biography, 2). Anaya lives and breathes the landscape of the Southwest. Anaya sees this as a powerful force, full of magic and myth, and this is apparent in all of his writings. Anaya has moved from one genre to the next, an acclaimed novelist, a poet, a dramatist, an essayist, and anthologist, a playwright, a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s author, a travel writer, and finally, an editor. His works are standard texts in Chicano studies and literature courses around the world. He has done more than, perhaps, any other person to promote Chicano literature. As Anaya said, Ã¢â¬Å"I fished, scaled the mountains of Taos, hunted with Cruz from the pueblo, finished high school, entered the university, married, and began to travel. I climbed mountains and crossed oceans and deserts in foreign places my old friends back home didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know existed. So who is to judge whether an adversity comes to crush us or to reshape usÃ¢â¬ (Anaya 371).
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Chessington Zoo was opened in July 1931 as a private venture by Reginald Goddard who invited the public to view his private animal collection. After the War Chessington soon became known for the different types of entertainment it could offer:- a circus, a funfair and a miniature railway as well as the zoo. Despite this in the early 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s the attendance figures of over 800,000 began to decline. The Zoo was in need of further investment. In 1978 the Pearson Group bought Chessington and when they later bought Madame Tussauds, they put all their leisure interests together to form the Tussauds Group. 1981 saw the beginning of the planning for the transformation of Chessington. Six years and i 12m later the Park was ready. It was opened in July 1987 by H. R. H. Prince Edward. The opening coincided with the opening of the M25 which gives easy access to the Park from various parts of the country. Approximately 18m people live within a 2 hour drive of the Park. On 19th October 1998 it was announced that Pearson had sold the Tussauds Group to Charterhouse Development Capital for i 352m. The TussaudÃ¢â¬â¢s Group Vision and Mission Vision: Ã¢â¬Å"Entertaining PeopleÃ¢â¬ . Mission: To deliver real growth in profits to take EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s leading entertainment world-wideÃ¢â¬ . The Marketing Department are a small team who work across both Chessington World of Adventures and Thorpe Park. It is the overall responsibility of the Marketing department to ensure that the brand identities of the two Parks are maintained in all communication both on and off the Parks. They do this through first identifying the brand identity, target market, and visual representation of the brand, i. e. the logo. For Chessington the target market is families with children under 12. Each year the marketing department will put together a marketing plan that covers the following areas: Product. Although almost without exception a new attraction is launched each year, and the main launch communication will focus on that, general communication about the rest of the Park is required. Theme Parks provide a whole day out for the family and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not just about the rides. The other attractions, places to eat, games, photography, the atmosphere, all play an important part in delivering a great day out. Pricing. There is a complex pricing structure for the Park which looks to maximise the revenue the Park can achieve with itÃ¢â¬â¢s targeted number of visitors. Marketing will review the pricing each year and along with the finance department look at how the budgeted targets can be achieved through the pricing matrix. Advanced sales are important to the business and for this reason tickets booked in advance are discounted, also those booked via the Internet are further discounted as this is a more efficient way for us to produce the tickets. Advanced tickets reduce the queues at admissions as visitors already have their tickets and can go straight in to the Park. Promotion. Promotion of the Park happens via a number of different communication channels. Advertising. This is generally broken down into two areas, the creative production of the advert and then the choice of where to place that advert, TV, Radio, Press etc. For the year 2002 communication for Chessington will focus on the new attraction, Hocus Pocus Hall. The main creative idea is all based around Ã¢â¬ËThe New Adventure Starts HereÃ¢â¬â¢. This new creative idea will be adapted for use on TV, Radio, Press and in ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s comics, ie The Beano. Promotions. Promotions are very import in incentivising visitors to come to the Park. The incentive is generally either a Buy One get One Free mechanic or a discount off the full adult or child price. Chessington ran promotions on itÃ¢â¬â¢s own or in conjunction with the Tussauds Group, ie Tesco. Promotions can be run with a wide variety of partners, Esso, News of the World, KP Skips or solus via a direct mail campaign to surrounding homes. Public Relations. This area is all about getting positive exposure in the media, TV, Radio and Press. This is generally achieved through issuing Press Releases and conducting interviews with journalists. Measuring the Success. Throughout the year, how the Park is doing against its financial targets is constantly reviewed, but in addition Marketing conducts ongoing research into how the Park is performing on a daily basis. Questionnaires are handed out to visitors as they leave asking them to rank the ridesÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences, eating places, how friendly and helpful the staff were, etc. This provides information on where things may be going wrong and how to put them right. New Media is a crucial area for involvement now and in the future. In addition to maintaining itÃ¢â¬â¢s own site: www. chessington. com, the Marketing department looks to exploit other opportunities for advertising, promotions and PR on other sites. Use of agencies. Chessington uses a wide variety of agencies as they bring different areas of expertise and experiences to the department. We use an advertising agency to create the TV, Radio adverts etc. and also for all the design work for the Gate Map. The space for the TV, Radio slots etcÃ is purchased by a Media Buying agency. We also use a Sales Promotion agency, PR agency and Internet design agencies. Corporate Hospitality makes it possible for businesses to entertain their guests at Chessington World of Adventures. Up to 3 000 corporate guests can be catered for at any one time. Education. An establishment like Chessington World of Adventures offers the opportunity for students studying the leisure industry, business or animals to visit the Park and find out more about their subject. For this reason, it is possible for groups to incorporate an educational talk into their visit. The Zoo enables guests to learn about the wildlife at Chessington World of Adventures. The Marketing Department ensure that the signage for the animals and around the Park are of a high quality and accessible by all the guests. Most often asked marketing questions Q Is the price of a new attraction affected by the viability of the ride? A Careful research is undertaken before a new attraction is bought. The attraction may be put in place to address a gap in guest numbers for a particular age range. The new attraction will encourage that element to visit the Park and therefore increase guest satisfaction.
Friday, September 13, 2019
As a Sales Manager in today's difficult retail environment, what steps do you take to ensure your team members achieve their sa - PowerPoint Presentation Example The Australian retail sales manager has to focus on the four major marketing strategy steps to succeed in the Australian retail market segment. First, the Australian retail sales manager has to focus on the product and service step of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy. According to Ritz (2007), the Australian retail company must implement some marketing changes to increase the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ demand for its products. The company must add additional shoe styles. The stores must offer the best service and sell high quality food, and other retail products based on the latest Australian retail market segment trends. The company must increase the store displays of the highly salable products in the food, grocery, and other retail products. The company must conduct a feasibility study to determine the current Australian retail product trends to determine what products to sell in the retail outlets. Second, the Australian retail sales manager has to focus on the price step of the Aust ralian retail companyÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy. Czinkota (2007) insists that the company must institute reasonable prices to increase its client base. The reasonable price is not the same as the lowest price.
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Trade and Consumer Protection Law-Unfair Trade Practices - Essay Example She was also promised class travel by "Gold Class" bus and ferry, along with excellent local guides who could enlighten her about the sites. Additionally, she was compelled to purchase an extra package of 'Lord of the Rings Experience' for $550. She also paid $2000 for single room accommodation. But her tour was a disappointing one due to the following reasons: (a) The information of rescheduling of the Air New Zealand flight was suppressed by Haka Travel Agency, and was not revealed to her, which made her lose 1 night and 1 day of her tour package against the 12 nights and 13 days' tour. This means she was subjected to a pecuniary loss equal to the cost of 1night and 1day. (e) There was also a hidden charge for the "Lord of the Rings' experience. She was forced to pay an extra $150 to the tour guide to see it. And the show was a swindling and lacked the promised entertainment Any advertisement published either in print media or even through other propaganda which involves a customer and product/service provider /corporation /company /government, is a contract between the advertiser and the person/group/company when the latter takes the service of the provider. If the service is not provided as per the advertisement, even the public can sue or take legal proceedings against the advertiser for public interest. If the service is not provided as per the advertisement it amounts to breach of contract and as such there arises a legal issue of breach of contract. In the issue stated and based on the problem the customer can sue against the travel agency. But as per Australian law, the breach of contract is not a criminal case. Here the travel agency has suppressed several facts like their in competency in providing services as they promised in their advertisement. And so she is subjected to pecuniary loss due to their shortages and untimely and unevenly provision of services. Issues of the case: This was the