Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Manegerial Rolls and Skills
Answer. To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. Henry mintzberg has identified ten roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups: interpersonal, informational, and decisional. The informational roles link all managerial work together. The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided. The decisional roles make significant use of the information. The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole. The idea of a role comes from sociology and is the pattern of actions expected of a person in his activities involving others. It arises as a result of the position that he occupies in a group in a given situation. Thus, a manager who occupies different positions in different situations plays different roles because people in each situation have different expectations of him concerning his functions. Interpersonal Roles: The three interpersonal roles are primarily concerned with interpersonal relationships. In the figurehead role, the manager represents the organization in all matters of formality. The top-level manager represents the company legally and socially to those outside of the organization. The Informational Role: The direct relationships with people in the interpersonal roles place the manager in a unique position to get information. Thus, the three informational roles are primarily concerned with the information aspects of managerial work. The Decisional Role: The unique access to information places the manager at the centre of organizational decision-making. There are four decisional roles. In the entrepreneur role, the manager initiates change. Q. 4 What are the factors influencing perception? Ã¢â¬ question. The assignment question is written for SMU MBA MB0038 assignment. We already have shared some solved assignments for MB0038 Ã¢â¬â Classification of Personality Types of Myers and Briggs and Methods of Shaping Behavior. Answer. Factors Influencing Perception: A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside: 1)In the perceiver ) In the object or target being perceived or 3) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made 1. Characteristics of the perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing percep tion are: a) Attitudes: The perceiverÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes affect perception. This attitude will doubtless affect his perceptions of the female candidates he interviews. b) Moods: Moods can have a strong influence on the way we perceive someone. We think differently when we are happy than we do when we are depressed. c) Motives: Unsatisfied needs or motives stimulate individuals and may exert a strong influence on their perceptions. d) Self-Concept: Another factor that can affect social perception is the perceiverÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept. An individual with a positive self-concept tends to notice positive attributes in another person. ) Interest: The focus of our attention appears to be influenced by our interests. Because our individual interest differs considerably, what one person notices in a situation can differ from what others perceive. f) Cognitive Structure: Cognitive Structure, an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s pattern of thinking, also affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearances more readil y. g) Expectations: Finally, expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see. The research findings of the study conducted by Sheldon S Zalkind and Timothy W Costello on some specific characteristics of the perceiver reveal knowing oneself makes it easier to see others accurately. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s own characteristics affect the characteristics one is likely to see in others. People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favourable aspects of other people. Accuracy in perceiving others is not a single skill. These four characteristics greatly influence how a person perceives others in the environmental situation.