Monday, February 18, 2019
Leonhard Euler :: essays research papers
Leonhard EulerLeonhard Euler, (born April 15, 1707, died Sept. 18, 1783), was the mostprolific mathematician in history. His 866 agrees and articles represent closelyone third of the entire body of research on mathematics, conjectural physics,and engineering mechanics published between 1726 and 1800. In pure mathematics,he integrated Leibnizs differential calculus and Newtons method of fluxionsinto numeric outline svelte the notion of a function made common manymathematical notations, including e, i, the pi symbol, and the sigma symbol andlaid the foundation for the theory of special functions, introducing the betaand gamma transcendal functions. He also spirted on the origins of the calculusof variations, but withheld his work in deference to J. L. Lagrange. He was apioneer in the business line of topology and made trope theory into a science, statingthe prime number theorem and the law of biquadratic reciprocity. In physics hearticulated Newtonian dynamics and laid the f oundation of analytical mechanics,especially in his surmise of the Motions of Rigid Bodies (1765). Like his teacherJohann Bernoulli, he elaborated continuum mechanics, but he also set forth thekinetic theory of gases with the molecular model. With Alexis Clairaut hestudied lunar theory. He also did fundamental research on elasticity, acoustics,the wave theory of light, and the hydromechanics of ships.Euler was born in Basel, Switzerland. His father, a pastor, wanted his give-and-take to follow in his footsteps and sent him to the University of Basel toprepare for the ministry, but geometry soon became his front-runner subject. Throughthe intercession of Bernoulli, Euler obtained his fathers consent to change hismajor to mathematics. After impuissance to obtain a physics position at Basel in1726, he joined the St. Petersburg Academy of Science in 1727. When funds werewithheld from the academy, he served as a medical lieutenant in the Russian navyfrom 1727 to 1730. In St. Petersburg he boarded at the home of Bernoullis sonDaniel. He became professor of physics at the academy in 1730 and professor ofmathematics in 1733, when he married and left Bernoullis house. His reputationgrew after the publication of many articles and his book Mechanica (1736-37),which extensively presented Newtonian dynamics in the form of mathematicalanalysis for the first time.In 1741, Euler joined the Berlin Academy of Science, where he remainedfor 25 years. In 1744 he became director of the academys mathematics section.During his stay in Berlin, he wrote everywhere 200 articles, three books onmathematical analysis, and a scientific popularization, letter to a Princess ofGermany (3 vols., 1768-72).